Neuronal differentiation potential of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. The important issues for clinical applications of iPS cells are the defined methods for somatic cell differentiation and how to effectively enrich desired cell population. Here we used humanized renilla green fluorescent protein under the control of Tα1 α-tubulin promoter as lineage selection marker for neuronal differentiation of iPS cells. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, green fluorescent protein positive cells were isolated and enriched to near-purity. These results indicated that the neuronal differentiation potential of iPS cells derived from adult somatic cells is similar to that of embryonic stem cells and the high-purity neurons may have important implications for neurodevelopmental studies, safety pharmacological studies, and transplantation studies.
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ABSTRACT: Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.Stem cells and development 10/2009; 19(7):1017-23. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) will become a source of models for a wide range of adult differentiated cells, providing that reliable protocols for directed differentiation can be established. Stem-cell technology has the potential to revolutionize drug discovery, making models available for primary screens, secondary pharmacology, safety pharmacology, metabolic profiling and toxicity evaluation. Models of differentiated cells that are derived from mouse ESCs are already in use in drug discovery, and are beginning to find uses in high-throughput screens. Before analogous human models can be obtained in adequate numbers, reliable methods for the expansion of human ESC cultures will be needed. For applications in drug discovery, involving either species, protocols for directed differentiation will need to be robust and affordable. Here, we explore current challenges and future opportunities in relation to the use of stem-cell technology in drug discovery, and address the use of both mouse and human models.dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery 09/2007; 6(8):605-16. · 33.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The long-term goal of nuclear transfer or alternative reprogramming approaches is to create patient-specific donor cells for transplantation therapy, avoiding immunorejection, a major complication in current transplantation medicine. It was recently shown that the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc induce pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts. However, the therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for neural cell replacement strategies remained unexplored. Here, we show that iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into neural precursor cells, giving rise to neuronal and glial cell types in culture. Upon transplantation into the fetal mouse brain, the cells migrate into various brain regions and differentiate into glia and neurons, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and catecholaminergic subtypes. Electrophysiological recordings and morphological analysis demonstrated that the grafted neurons had mature neuronal activity and were functionally integrated in the host brain. Furthermore, iPS cells were induced to differentiate into dopamine neurons of midbrain character and were able to improve behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease upon transplantation into the adult brain. We minimized the risk of tumor formation from the grafted cells by separating contaminating pluripotent cells and committed neural cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of directly reprogrammed fibroblasts for neuronal cell replacement in the animal model.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2008; 105(15):5856-5861. · 9.74 Impact Factor