Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Hatha Yoga on Craving to Smoke

Tobacco Research and Intervention Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33617, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 08/2011; 13(11):1140-8. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr163
Source: PubMed


Recent studies have examined the effects of physical activity on craving to smoke and smoking withdrawal. The current study was designed to compare and contrast the effects of 2 different forms of physical activity on general and cue-elicited craving to smoke.
Following 1-hr nicotine abstinence, 76 daily smokers were randomly assigned to engage in a 30-min bout of cardiovascular exercise (CE; brisk walk on a treadmill), Hatha yoga (HY), or a nonactivity control condition. Participants completed measures of craving and mood, and a smoking cue reactivity assessment, before, immediately following, and approximately 20 min after the physical activity or control conditions.
Compared with the control condition, participants in each of the physical activity groups reported a decrease in craving to smoke, an increase in positive affect, and a decrease in negative affect. In addition, craving in response to smoking cues was specifically reduced among those who engaged in CE, whereas those who engaged in HY reported a general decrease in cravings.
This study provides further support for the use of exercise bouts for attenuating cigarette cravings during temporary nicotine abstinence. Results also suggest that CE can attenuate cravings in response to smoking cues. There are several areas for further research that may improve integration of exercise within smoking cessation treatment.

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    • "Another study found that daily smokers assigned to either a brief yoga intervention or an exercise intervention, relative to a passive control, reported a decrease in craving to smoke. Further , while the exercise group reported lower craving in response to smoking cues, those who had received yoga reported a general decrease in cravings (Elibero et al., 2011). Although few in number , these studies are consistent with the notion that yoga may be useful in facilitating long-term regulation of behaviors that require considerable self-regulation, such as physical activity or smoking abstinence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory). From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2014; 8:770. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00770 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "Besides physical EX, "mindful EX interventions", such as yoga, draw significant attention as adjunct treatment, for example, in depression and anxiety [94], schizophrenia, eating disorders [95], and smoking cessation [96,97]. Also, martial arts were found to have favorable acute effects in depressed patients [98]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological studies have shown that exercise (EX) and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay the onset of different mental disorders, and have therapeutic benefits when used as sole or adjunct treatment in mental disorders. This review summarizes studies that used EX interventions in patients with anxiety, affective, eating, and substance use disorders, as well as schizophrenia and dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Despite several decades of clinical evidence with EX interventions, controlled studies are sparse in most disorder groups. Preliminary evidence suggests that PA/EX can induce improvements in physical, subjective and disorder-specific clinical outcomes. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed, as well as implications for psychiatric research and practice.
    01/2013; 46 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S12-21. DOI:10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.S.S12
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    • "shown to attenuate craving in response to cues to smoke (Elibero et al. 2011), thus implicating reduced cue-reactivity as a mechanism through which PA exerts a therapeutic effect on withdrawal symptoms. This body of work is in its infancy, and has the potential to inform the design of PA pre-cessation interventions. "
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    ABSTRACT: A bstract Tobacco use and physical inactivity are two of the leading behavioral causes of morbidity and mortality both in the United States and worldwide. Given that these behaviors tend to co-occur within individuals, addressing them in tandem as part of a multiple health behavior change approach could be beneficial from both a clinical and public health perspective. To date, physical activity interventions used to treat nicotine dependence have had limited efficacy. Using the multiple health behavior change framework, this commentary will argue that this lack of efficacy is attributable to the simultaneous approach used by interventionists where patients are required to increase levels of physical activity and quit smoking in a short proximity of time. A potentially more efficacious approach would be to use a sequential behavior change approach, where, for example, smoking cessation would not be initiated until increased physical activity was at least partially habitual. Further work is needed to determine the optimal intervention approach to address this potent risk behavior dyad of physical inactivity and tobacco use. Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions move beyond traditional single target health-behavior approaches to address two or more health behaviors. Given that tobacco use and physical inactivity are leading causes of PRUELGLW\ DQG PRUWDOLW\ DQG WKDW WKHVH EHKDYLRUV ³FOXVWHUithin individuals (Reijneveld et al. 2012), there is much potential for the MHBC approach to address these risk factors in concert. Despite this potential, interventions to improve physical activity (PA) and quit smoking have had limited efficacy. Using the MHBC framework this commentary will go toward explaining this lack of efficacy, present an alternative approach and suggest directions to advance this work for the risk behavior dyad of physical inactivity and tobacco use. Physical A ctivity and Smoking C essation Approximately three-quarters of smokers do not engage in any PA. Interventions designed to increase levels of PA as a smoking cessation strategy have been largely unsuccessful, with only one study showing increased levels of PA as predictive of quitting success (Marcus et al. 2005). This lack of efficacy is somewhat surprising given the common physiological and psychological responses that smoking cigarettes and PA share including increased heart rate, elevated mood and anhedonia; on this basis, one could argue that PA might be an apt replacement behavior for cigarette smoking. Furthermore, laboratory data show that in abstinent smokers, acute bouts of PA provides short-term relief (about 40 minutes) from nicotine withdrawal symptoms (e.g.,
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