Article

Cigarette smoking and serious psychological distress: a population-based study of California adults.

Institute for Health & Aging, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Suite 340, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 08/2011; 13(12):1183-92. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr148
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examines differences in smoking behaviors between adults with and without serious psychological distress (SPD) in California, which has the longest running comprehensive tobacco control program in the world.
Cross-sectional data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey on 50,880 noninstitutionalized adults were used to analyze smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and quit ratio. Persons with SPD were identified using the K6 scale, a clinically validated psychological screening instrument.
About 3.8% of California adults screened positive for SPD in the past 30 days (acute SPD) and an additional 4.8% screened positive for SPD in the past 2-12 months (recent SPD). Persons with SPD were more likely to be current smokers than those without SPD (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.54, 95% CI = 2.02-3.19 for acute SPD and AOR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.79-2.71 for recent SPD). Current smokers with acute SPD were more likely to smoke ≥20 cigarettes daily than those without SPD (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.06-2.39). The quit rate was lower among ever-smokers with acute (AOR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.35-0.62) or recent SPD (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.42-0.71) than those without SPD. While persons with acute or recent SPD comprised 8.6% of adults, they consumed 19.2% of all cigarettes in California.
In California, adults with SPD were more likely to be current smokers and to smoke heavily and less likely to quit than those without SPD. The findings underscore the need for effective smoking cessation strategies targeting this group.

Full-text

Available from: Michael K Ong, Jun 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
129 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION We previously reported that female smokers evidence greater subjective craving and stress/emotional reactivity to personalized stress cues than males. The present study employed the same data set to assess whether females in the follicular vs. luteal phase of the menstrual cycle accounted for the gender differences. METHODS Two objective criteria, onset of menses and luteinizing hormone surge (evaluated via home testing kits), were used to determine whether female smokers were in either the follicular (n=22) or the luteal (n=15) phase of their menstrual cycle, respectively. The females and a sample of male smokers (n=53) were then administered a laboratory-based cue reactivity paradigm that involved assessment of craving, stress, and emotional reactivity in response to counterbalanced presentations of both a personalized stress script and neutral/relaxed script. RESULTS While there were no significant differences between females in the follicular vs. luteal phase on any outcome measure, females in the luteal menstrual phase reported greater craving than males whereas females in the follicular phase reported greater stress and arousal than males and perceived the stress cues as more emotionally aversive than males. CONCLUSION This preliminary investigation suggests that gender differences in craving vs. affective responding to stress cues may, in part, be explained variation by menstrual cycle phase. Study limitations and implications of the findings for future research and treatment are briefly discussed.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10/2014; 17(5). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu203 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 04/2015; 17(4):438-442. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu248 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. METHODS: The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: "Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale" (ATS-18), "Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" (SEQ-12), "Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy" scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). RESULTS: A time x group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker.Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.
    Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 01/2013; 8(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-8-3 · 1.16 Impact Factor