Article

Deep sequencing of plasma and proviral HIV-1 to establish coreceptor usage: what is the clinical impact of the quasispecies distribution?

Laboratory of Virology, Clinical Department, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INMI), Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 09/2011; 204(6):971-3; author reply 973-4. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir427
Source: PubMed
1 Follower
 · 
88 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Genotype-based algorithms are valuable tools for the identification of patients eligible for CCR5 inhibitors administration in clinical practice. Among the available methods, geno2pheno[coreceptor] (G2P) is the most used online tool for tropism prediction. This study was conceived to assess if the combination of G2P prediction with V3 peptide net charge (NC) value could improve the accuracy of tropism prediction. A total of 172 V3 bulk sequences from 143 patients were analyzed by G2P and NC values. A phenotypic assay was performed by cloning the complete env gene and tropism determination was assessed on U87_CCR5(+)/CXCR4(+) cells. Sequences were stratified according to the agreement between NC values and G2P results. Of sequences predicted as X4 by G2P, 61% showed NC values higher than 5; similarly, 76% of sequences predicted as R5 by G2P had NC values below 4. Sequences with NC values between 4 and 5 were associated with different G2P predictions: 65% of samples were predicted as R5-tropic and 35% of sequences as X4-tropic. Sequences identified as X4 by NC value had at least one positive residue at positions known to be involved in tropism prediction and positive residues in position 32. These data supported the hypothesis that NC values between 4 and 5 could be associated with the presence of dual/mixed-tropic (DM) variants. The phenotypic assay performed on a subset of sequences confirmed the tropism prediction for concordant sequences and showed that NC values between 4 and 5 are associated with DM tropism. These results suggest that the combination of G2P and NC could increase the accuracy of tropism prediction. A more reliable identification of X4 variants would be useful for better selecting candidates for Maraviroc (MVC) administration, but also as a predictive marker in coreceptor switching, strongly associated with the phase of infection.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30(12). DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.0006 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously found that a very low geno2pheno false positive rate (FPR ≤2%) defines a viral population associated with low CD4 cell count and the highest amount of X4-quasispecies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether FPR ≤2% might impact on the viro-immunological response in HIV-1 infected patients starting a first-line HAART.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105853. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105853 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The detection of mutant spectra within the viral quasispecies is critical for therapeutic management of HIV-1 infections. Routine clinical application of ultrasensitive genotyping requires reproducibility and concordance within and between laboratories. The goal of the study was to evaluate a new protocol on HIV-1 drug resistance testing by 454 ultra-deep pyrosequencing (454-UDS) in an international multicenter study. Sixteen blinded HIV-1 subtype B-samples were provided for 454-UDS as both RNA and cDNA with viral titers of 88,600-573,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. Eight overlapping amplicons spanning protease (PR) codons 10-99 and reverse transcriptase (RT) codons 1-251 were generated using molecular barcoded primers. 454-UDS were performed using the 454 Life Sciences/Roche GS FLX platform. PR and RT sequences were analyzed using 454 Life Sciences Amplicon Variant Analyzer (AVA) software. Quantified variation data were analyzed for intra-laboratory reproducibility and inter-laboratory concordance. Routine population sequencing was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. Eleven laboratories and the reference laboratory 454 Life Sciences sequenced the HIV-1 sample set. Data presented are derived from seven laboratories and the reference laboratory since severe study protocol execution errors occurred in four laboratories leading to exclusion. The median sequencing depth across all sites was 1,364 reads per position (IQR=809-2,065). 100% of the ViroSeq-reported mutations were also detected by 454-UDS. Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, defined as HIV-1 drug resistance mutations identified at frequencies of 1-25%, were only detected by 454-UDS. Analysis of 10 preselected majority and minority mutations were consistently found across sites. The analysis of drug-resistance mutations detected between 1-10% demonstrated high intra- and inter-laboratory consistency in frequency estimates for both RNA and prepared cDNA samples, indicating robustness of the method. HIV-1 drug resistance testing using 454 ultra-deep pyrosequencing results in an accurate and highly reproducible, albeit complex, approach to the analysis of HIV-1 mutant spectra, even at frequencies well below those detected by routine population sequencing.
    Journal of virological methods 04/2014; 204. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.04.007 · 1.88 Impact Factor