Role of environmental poliovirus surveillance in global polio eradication and beyond

National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, Helsinki, Finland.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 08/2011; 140(1):1-13. DOI: 10.1017/S095026881000316X
Source: PubMed


Environmental poliovirus surveillance (ENV) means monitoring of poliovirus (PV) transmission in human populations by examining environmental specimens supposedly contaminated by human faeces. The rationale is based on the fact that PV-infected individuals, whether presenting with disease symptoms or not, shed large amounts of PV in the faeces for several weeks. As the morbidity:infection ratio of PV infection is very low, this fact contributes to the sensitivity of ENV which under optimal conditions can be better than that of the standard acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The World Health Organization has included ENV in the new Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative for years 2010-2012 to be increasingly used in PV surveillance, supplementing AFP surveillance. In this paper we review the feasibility of using ENV to monitor wild PV and vaccine-derived PV circulation in human populations, based on global experiences in defined epidemiological situations.

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Available from: Lester M Shulman, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Viruses in sewage are thought to reflect the viruses circulating in the human population, originating from asymptomatic and symptomatic persons (22). Hence, environmental surveillance studies are extremely useful to determine the circulation of viruses in the human population (22,23) and to obtain sequence information of the circulating strains. "
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987-2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009-2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 08/2013; 19(8):1222-30. DOI:10.3201/eid1908.130312 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    • "However, both methods are time consuming which take 14–15 days and are unsuitable for the detection of non-cytopathogenic virus. Although, an RT-PCR based method in direct examination of specimens is more sensitive, but virus isolation in cell culture still remains the standard method for the identification of PV in sewage [Fong and Lipp, 2005; Hovi et al., 2012]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enteroviruses have been reported in epidemic form during last 10 years in northern India. Environmental surveillance of sewage is the method of choice in limited resources countries for detection of enterovirus serotypes circulating in the community. Twenty-four sewage samples collected between January, 2009 and December, 2010 were tested for enterovirus by using a new modified integrated shell vial culture (ISVC) with a semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene and virus isolation integrated with semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene. Twenty-one (87.5%) out of 24 samples were positive for enterovirus by the conventional method and all samples (100%) by the ISVC-RT-PCR. The additional positive samples detected by ISVC-RT-PCR was typed as six different enterovirus serotypes (Sabin poliovirus 3, Coxsackievirus B3, Coxsackievirus A13, Coxsackievirus A17, Echovirus 33, and Enterovirus 75). Phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene of Echovirus 19 showed that one genetic lineage clustered with isolates from Georgia suggesting their importation into northern India. Detection of wild poliovirus in the absence of clinical cases with 16 different co-circulating enterovirus serotypes supports the need of increased molecular surveillance of sewage. Rapid identification and characterization of enterovirus serotypes is necessary to study their transmission and evolution in different geographical regions to prevent future outbreak. J. Med. Virol. 85:505-511, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 03/2013; 85(3):505-11. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23441 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic environmental surveillance for poliovirus circulation has been conducted in Egypt since 2000. The surveillance has revealed three independent importations of wild-type poliovirus. In addition, several vaccine-derived polioviruses have been detected in various locations in Egypt. In addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, environmental surveillance can be used to monitor the wild poliovirus and vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in populations in support of polio eradication initiatives.
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