The vitamin D pathway and mammographic breast density among postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT Laboratory studies have demonstrated that vitamin D has a number of chemopreventive properties, and that these properties may be mediated or modified by other molecules in the vitamin D pathway, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) or calcium. However, there is little epidemiologic data exploring the effects of vitamin D on breast cancer risk in the context of these other molecules. We examined a panel of molecules in the vitamin D pathway in relation to mammographic breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, in the Wisconsin Breast Density Study. A total of 238 postmenopausal women (ages 55-70, with no history of postmenopausal hormone use) were enrolled from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin. Subjects provided blood samples that were analyzed for levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), retinol, and calcium. Percent breast density was measured using Cumulus software. In age-adjusted analyses there was a positive association between 25(OH)D and percent breast density (P = 0.05; mean percent density = 11.3% vs. 15.6% for 1st vs. 4th quartile of 25(OH)D). Breast density was inversely associated with PTH (P = 0.05; 16.0% vs. 11.4% for Q1 vs. Q4) and positively associated with the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio (P = 0.02; 11.9% vs. 15.6% for Q1 vs. Q4). However, these associations were all null after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI; P > 0.25). The independent relation between 25(OH)D and breast density remained null among subgroups defined by BMI and serum levels of retinol, calcium, and estradiol. These results suggest no strong independent associations between the circulating molecules of the vitamin D pathway and mammographic breast density in postmenopausal women. While it remains possible that vitamin D could influence breast cancer risk, our results suggest that such an effect would be mediated through pathways other than breast density.
Article: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein (PTHrP) receptor expression and mitogenic responses in human breast cancer cell lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous reports have shown the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) by breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. We have investigated the expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor by the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, SK-BR-3, Hs578T and MDA-MB231. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis, we detected transcripts for the receptor in MCF-7, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB231 cells. There was no evidence of receptor mRNA in ZR-75-1 and Hs578T cells. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis of mRNA from MCF-7 cells showed two transcripts of 1.5 and 2.4 kb which coded for the PTH/PTHrP receptor. Expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA by the breast cancer cell lines was also correlated with the detection of PTHrP transcripts. RT-PCR demonstrated PTHrP mRNA in MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D and Hs578T cells, but not in SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB231 cells. The detection of receptor transcripts was complemented by [3H]thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation studies, in which mitogenic responses to PTH and PTHrP were observed in MCF-7 cells but not in Hs578T cells. In response to both PTH(1-34) and PTHrP(1-34), quiescent MCF-7 cells proliferated in a similar dose-dependent manner (1.6-100 ng ml-1). No mitogenic effects of these peptides were observed with Hs578T cells. In addition, levels of intracellular cAMP were measured in MCF-7 and Hs578T cells in response to PTHrP(1-34). In MCF-7 cells there was a significant rise in cAMP with 100 ng ml-1 PTHrP(1-34). The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor by breast cancer cells suggests that PTHrP may be a paracrine/autocrine regulator of breast carcinoma.British Journal of Cancer 08/1995; 72(1):90-5. · 5.04 Impact Factor
Nature reviews. Cancer 08/2004; 4(7):505-18. · 37.54 Impact Factor