B Lymphocytes Promote Lymphogenous Metastasis of Lymphoma and Melanoma 1

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 4.25). 08/2011; 13(8):748-57. DOI: 10.1593/neo.11756
Source: PubMed


The prognosis of patients with many types of cancers correlates with the degree of metastasis to regional lymph nodes (LNs) and vital organs. However, the mechanisms and route of cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. Previous studies determined that B-cell accumulation in tumor-draining LNs (TDLNs) induces lymphatic sinus growth (lymphangiogenesis) and increases lymph flow, which could actively promote tumor dissemination through the lymphatic system. Using young Eµ-c-Myc mice that feature LN B-cell expansion as hosts for tumor transplants, we show that subcutaneously implanted lymphomas or melanomas preferentially spread to TDLNs over non-TDLNs, thus demonstrating that these tumors initially metastasize through lymphatic rather than through hematogenous routes. In addition, the rate and amount of tumor dissemination is greater in Eµ-c-Myc mice versus wild-type hosts, which correlates with LN B-cell accumulation and lymphangiogenesis in Eµ-c-Myc hosts. The increased lymphatic dissemination in Eµ-c-Myc hosts is further associated with rapid hematogenous tumor spread of subcutaneously implanted lymphomas, suggesting that TDLN metastasis secondarily drives lymphoma spread to distant organs. In contrast, after intravenous tumor cell injection, spleen metastasis of lymphoma cells or lung metastasis of melanoma cells is similar in Eµ-c-Myc and wild-type hosts. These studies demonstrate that the effect of Eµ-c-Myc hosts to promote metastasis is limited to the lymphatic route of dissemination. TDLN B-cell accumulation, in association with lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow, thus significantly contributes to dissemination of lymphomas and solid tumors, providing new targets for therapeutic intervention to block metastasis.

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    • "Ruddell et al. reported B-cell accumulation in tumor draining lymph nodes, which induced lymphangiogenesis and increased lymphatic flow in Eμ-c-Myc transgenic mice [169]. These mice exhibited increased lymphatic metastasis of lymphoma and melanoma [170]. Harrell et al. made similar observations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphangiogenesis is a very early step in lymphatic metastasis. It is regulated and promoted not only by the tumor cells themselves, but also by cells of the tumor microenvironment, including cancer associated fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Even the extracellular matrix as well as cytokines and growth factors are involved in the process of lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. The cellular and noncellular components influence each other and can be influenced by the tumor cells. The knowledge about mechanisms behind lymphangiogenesis in the tumor microenvironmental crosstalk is growing and offers starting points for new therapeutic approaches.
    BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014:639058. DOI:10.1155/2014/639058 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "In this study we utilized two murine models to compare the growth of large peritumoral lymphatic and blood vessels. The syngeneic B16-F10 melanoma model [22] permits ready visualization of peritumoral vasculature on the flank skin of C57Bl/6 mice, and these tumors metastasize via the lymphatics to draining lymph nodes (LNs) [23-25]. The second model used was an autochthonous squamous cell carcinoma induced by DMBA mutagenesis, followed by repeated TPA promoter treatments of outbred mice [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. Methods The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Results Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Conclusions Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes.
    BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14(1):354. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-354 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • ") consistent with the previously reported ~40% rate of regional LN metastasis in the B16F10 model [34,35]. Three of 5 mice with LN metastasis showed altered lymphatic drainage to the ILN (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: The lymphatic system provides an initial route for cancer cell dissemination in many cancers including melanoma. However, it is largely unknown how the lymphatic system changes during tumor progression due in part to the lack of imaging techniques currently available. In this study, we non-invasively imaged changes of lymphatic function and drainage patterns using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Dynamic NIRF imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was conducted in C57BL/6 mice prior to inoculation of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the dorsal aspect of the left hindpaw for baseline data or directly to the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and until 21 days post-implantation (p.i.). A series of acquired fluorescent images were quantified to measure lymphatic contractile function. Computed tomography (CT) was also performed to measure the volume of tumor-draining lymph nodes (LNs). We observed significant reduction of lymphatic contractility from 7 days p.i. until 21 days p.i.. Altered lymphatic drainage patterns were also detected at 21 days p.i. in mice with tumor in the paw and at 11 days p.i. in mice with tumor in the PLN, due to lymphatic obstruction of normal lymphatic drainages caused by extensive tumor invasion of draining LNs. Since lymphatic function and architecture were progressively altered during tumor growth and metastasis, non-invasive NIRF imaging may provide a new method to stage disease. In addition, this novel technique can be used as a diagnostic method to non-invasively assess lymphatic response as mechanism of therapeutic action.
    Biomedical Optics Express 06/2013; 4(6):967-77. DOI:10.1364/BOE.4.000967 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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