Evidence that diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has dual membrane topology in the endoplasmic reticulum of HepG2 cells.
ABSTRACT Triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and secretion are important functions of the liver that have major impacts on health, as overaccumulation of TAG within the liver (steatosis) or hypersecretion of TAG within very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) both have deleterious metabolic consequences. Two diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs 1 and 2) can catalyze the final step in the synthesis of TAG from diacylglycerol, which has been suggested to play an important role in the transfer of the glyceride moiety across the endoplasmic reticular membrane for (re)synthesis of TAG on the lumenal aspect of the endoplasmic reticular (ER) membrane (Owen, M., Corstorphine, C. C., and Zammit, V. A. (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 17-21). Recent topographical studies suggested that the oligomeric enzyme DGAT1 is exclusively lumen facing (latent) in the ER membrane. By contrast, in the present study, using two specific inhibitors of human DGAT1, we present evidence that DGAT1 has a dual topology within the ER of HepG2 cells, with approximately equal DGAT1 activities exposed on the cytosolic and lumenal aspects of the ER membrane. This was confirmed by the observation of the loss of both overt (partial) and latent (total) DGAT activity in microsomes prepared from livers of Dgat1(-/-) mice. Conformational differences between DGAT1 molecules having the different topologies were indicated by the markedly disparate sensitivities of the overt DGAT1 to one of the inhibitors. These data suggest that DGAT1 belongs to the family of oligomeric membrane proteins that adopt a dual membrane topology.
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ABSTRACT: CD38 catalyzes the synthesis of two structurally distinct messengers for Ca2 +-mobilization, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), from cytosolic substrates, NAD and NADP, respectively. CD38 is generally thought of as a type II membrane protein with its catalytic site facing outside. We recently showed that CD38 exists, instead, in two opposite membrane orientations. The determinant for the membrane topology is unknown. Here, specific antibodies against type III CD38 were designed and produced. We show that mutating the positively charged residues in the N-terminal tail of CD38 converted its orientation to type III, with the catalytic domain facing the cytosol and it was fully active in producing intracellular cADPR. Changing the serine residues to aspartate, which is functionally equivalent to phosphorylation, had a similar effect. The mutated CD38 was expressed intracellularly and was un-glycosylated. The membrane topology could also be modulated by changing the highly conserved di-cysteine. The results indicate that the net charge of the N-terminal segment is important in determining the membrane topology of CD38 and that the type III orientation can be a functional form of CD38 for Ca2 +-signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.10.028 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Digested dietary triacylglycerol is re-packaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) and acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation.The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1194/jlr.R052902 · 4.73 Impact Factor
Article: The life cycle of lipid droplets[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proteomic studies have revealed many potential functions of cytoplasmic lipid droplets, and recent activity has confirmed that these bona fide organelles are central not only for lipid storage and metabolism, but for development, immunity, and pathogenesis by several microbes. There has been a burst of recent activity on the assembly, maintenance and turnover of lipid droplets that reveals fresh insights. This review summarizes several novel findings in initiation of lipid droplet assembly, protein targeting, droplet fusion, and turnover of droplets through lipophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Current Opinion in Cell Biology 02/2015; 33C:119-124. DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2015.02.002 · 8.74 Impact Factor