Child Neurology: Brachial plexus birth injury: What every neurologist needs to know

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 08/2011; 77(7):695-7. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822a6874
Source: PubMed


While most often transient, brachial plexus birth injury can cause permanent neurologic injury. The major risk factors for brachial plexus birth injury are fetal macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. The degree of injury to the brachial plexus should be determined in the neonatal nursery, as those infants with the most severe injury--root avulsion--should be referred early for surgical evaluation so that microsurgical repair of the plexus can occur by 3 months of life. Microsurgical repair options include nerve grafts and nerve transfers. All children with brachial plexus birth injury require ongoing physical and occupational therapy and close follow-up to monitor progress.

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    Basic Principles of Peripheral Nerve Disorders, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0407-0
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    ABSTRACT: Brachial plexus injury is the most common cause of plegic arm in neonates. Detection of nerve root avulsions and intraspinal nerve lesions is most valuable for treatment strategy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for imaging the brachial plexus in infants as it allows visualization and localization of different types of nerve lesions in a noninvasive way and without radiation exposure. Conventional radiography of the shoulder is of interest in follow-up to assess osseous deformities of the glenoid fossa and humeral head. We report a case of obstetric brachial plexus injury complicated with glenohumeral shoulder deformity in a 3-year-old girl.
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