Risk of constrictive pericarditis after acute pericarditis.
ABSTRACT Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is considered a rare, dreaded possible complication of acute pericarditis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of prospective studies that have evaluated the specific risk according to different etiologies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of CP after acute pericarditis in a prospective cohort study with long-term follow-up.
From January 2000 to December 2008, 500 consecutive cases with a first episode of acute pericarditis (age, 51±16 years; 270 men) were prospectively studied to evaluate the evolution toward CP. Etiologies were viral/idiopathic in 416 cases (83.2%), connective tissue disease/pericardial injury syndromes in 36 cases (7.2%), neoplastic pericarditis in 25 cases (5.0%), tuberculosis in 20 cases (4.0%), and purulent in 3 cases (0.6%). During a median follow-up of 72 months (range, 24 to 120 months), CP developed in 9 of 500 patients (1.8%): 2 of 416 patients with idiopathic/viral pericarditis (0.48%) versus 7 of 84 patients with a nonviral/nonidiopathic etiology (8.3%). The incidence rate of CP was 0.76 cases per 1000 person-years for idiopathic/viral pericarditis, 4.40 cases per 1000 person-years for connective tissue disease/pericardial injury syndrome, 6.33 cases per 1000 person-years for neoplastic pericarditis, 31.65 cases for 1000 person-years for tuberculous pericarditis, and 52.74 cases per 1000 person-years for purulent pericarditis.
CP is a relatively rare complication of viral or idiopathic acute pericarditis (<0.5%) but, in contrast, is relatively frequent for specific etiologies, especially bacterial.
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ABSTRACT: Constrictive pericarditis can result from a stiff pericardium that prevents satisfactory diastolic filling. The distinction between constrictive pericarditis and other causes of heart failure, such as restrictive cardiomyopathy, is important because pericardiectomy can cure constrictive pericarditis. Diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis is based on characteristic haemodynamic and anatomical features determined using echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, cardiac MRI, and CT. The Mayo Clinic echocardiography and cardiac catheterization haemodynamic diagnostic criteria for constrictive pericarditis are based on the unique features of ventricular interdependence and dissociation of intrathoracic and intracardiac pressures seen when the pericardium is constricted. A complete pericardiectomy can restore satisfactory diastolic filling by removing the constrictive pericardium in patients with constrictive pericarditis. However, if inflammation of the pericardium is the predominant constrictive mechanism, anti-inflammatory therapy might alleviate this transient condition without a need for surgery. Early diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis is, therefore, of paramount clinical importance. An improved understanding of how constrictive pericarditis develops after an initiating event is critical to prevent this diastolic heart failure. In this Review, we discuss the aetiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis, with a specific emphasis on how to differentiate this disease from conditions with similar clinical presentations.Nature Reviews Cardiology 07/2014; · 10.40 Impact Factor
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