On-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with left main stem disease: A propensity score analysis
ABSTRACT This study compared safety and efficacy between off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB), a relatively new technique, and conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) in patients with left main stem disease.
In a retrospective, observational, cohort study of prospectively collected data on 2375 consecutive patients with left main stem disease undergoing isolated CABG (1297 OPCAB, 1078 CCAB) between April 1996 and December 2009 at the Bristol Heart Institute, 548 patients undergoing OPCAB were matched with 548 patients undergoing CCAB by propensity score.
After propensity matching, groups were comparable in preoperative characteristics. Relative to CCAB, OPCAB was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (0.5% vs 2.9%; P = .001), incidence of stroke (0% vs 0.9%; P = .02), postoperative renal dysfunction (4.9% vs 10.8%; P = .001), pulmonary complications (10.2% vs 16.6%; P = .002), and infectious complications (3.5% vs 6.2%; P = .03). The OPCAB group received fewer grafts than did the CCAB group (2.7 ± 0.7 vs 3 ± 0.7; P = .001) and had a lower rate of complete revascularization (88.3% vs 92%; P = .04). In multivariable analysis, cardiopulmonary bypass was confirmed to be an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 5.74; P = .001). Survivals at 1, 5, and 10 years were similar between groups (OPCAB, 96.8%, 87.3%, and 71.7%; CCAB, 96.8%, 88.6%, and 69.8%).
OPCAB in patients with left main stem disease is a safe procedure with reduced early morbidity and mortality and similar long-term survival to conventional on-pump revascularization.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Blood stream infection (BSI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, information is lacking about patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens of BSI after OPCAB. Methods: One thousand ten consecutive patients undergoing OPCAB between 2001 and 2012 were included in a retrospective case-control study. A propensity-matched control was used for risk factor analysis. Results: Of the 1,010 patients, 26 patients (2.6%) had 32 episodes of BSI after surgery, which occurred at a median of 14 d after surgery. Gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were distributed equally. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogen identified most frequently, and the most common source of infection was a surgical site. The hospital mortality rate was 54%. By univariable analysis, diabetes mellitus, pre-operative renal impairment, pre-operative low hemoglobin, pre-operative endotracheal intubation, dialysis before or after surgery, cardiogenic shock, left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, non-elective surgery, low number of distal anastomoses, atrial fibrillation after surgery, and re-operation for bleeding were significant risk factors. By multivariable analysis, the independent risk factors were left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, low number of distal anastomoses, atrial fibrillation after surgery, and dialysis after surgery. Conclusions: Blood stream infections remained a common complication after OPCAB, and the mortality was high. Gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were distributed equally. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was the pathogen identified most frequently. Preventive tactics should target likely pathogens and high-risk patients undergoing OPCAB.Surgical Infections 05/2014; 15(5). DOI:10.1089/sur.2012.213 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with worse long-term survival compared with on-pump CABG. We performed a meta-analysis of adjusted observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through March 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and adjusted observational studies (in which appropriate statistical methods adjusting for confounders had been used) of off-pump versus on-pump CABG that had reported long-term (>= 5-year) all-cause mortality as an outcome. Results: Of 478 potentially relevant studies screened initially, 5 randomized trials and 17 observational studies, enrolling a total of 104,306 patients, were identified and included. A pooled analysis of all 22 studies demonstrated a statistically significant 7% increase in long-term all-cause mortality with off-pump relative to on-pump CABG (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11; P = .0003). Although a pooled analysis of 5 randomized trials (1486 patients) demonstrated a statistically nonsignificant 14% increase in mortality with off-pump relative to on-pump CABG (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.56; P = .39), another pooled analysis of 17 observational studies (102,820 patients) demonstrated a statistically significant 7% increase in mortality with off-pump relative to on-pump CABG (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11; P = .0004). Conclusions: A meta-analysis of 22 studies, enrolling a total of >100,000 patients, showed that off-pump CABG is likely associated with worse long-term (>= 5-year) survival compared with on-pump CABG.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 05/2014; 148(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.05.034 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose Stroke is one of the most devastating complications after cardiac surgery. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) has been reported to offer a lower risk of stroke. However, limited information was available on timing and mechanisms of stroke after OPCAB. We sought to assess the incidence, timing, and mechanisms of stroke after OPCAB. Methods A retrospective review of 1010 patients undergoing systematic OPCAB between 2001 and 2012. Stroke was defined as any focal or global neurologic deficits lasting for more than 24 hours. Stroke was classified as early stroke when it occurred less than 24 hours postoperatively, and delayed stroke when it occurred more than 24 hours postoperatively. Stroke mechanisms were classified as embolic or hypoperfusion. Results In a total of 10 patients (1.0%) 11 episodes of stroke developed after OPCAB. Early stroke occurred in five (0.5%) patients and delayed stroke occurred in six (0.6%) patients. Of five early strokes, the mechanisms were embolic in two (40%) and hypoperfusion in three (60%). Of six delayed strokes, the mechanisms were embolic in five (83%) and unknown in one. Of six delayed strokes, all the patients had diabetes mellitus and acute cardiac events prior to surgery, and five patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. Conclusion The incidence of stroke after systematic OPCAB was low. Early and delayed strokes were equally distributed. Stroke mechanisms were predominantly embolic. Early and delayed stroke differed in their mechanisms. Early and delayed stroke should be considered as two separate entities and different preventive strategies should be applied in future intervention.Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2014.01.010 · 1.70 Impact Factor