Comparison of the efficacy of serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in the diagnosis and follow-up of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of serum amyloid A (SAA) with that of C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) in diagnosis and follow-up of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.
A total of 152 infants were enrolled into this observational study. The infants were classified into 3 groups: group 1 (58 infants with NEC and sepsis), group 2 (54 infants with only sepsis), and group 3 (40 infants with neither sepsis nor NEC, or control group). The data including whole blood count, CRP, PCT, SAA, and cultures that were obtained at diagnosis (0 hour), at 24 and 48 hours, and at 7 and 10 days were evaluated.
A total of 58 infants had a diagnosis of NEC. Mean CRP (7.4 ± 5.2 mg/dL) and SAA (46.2 ± 41.3 mg/dL) values of infants in group 1 at 0 hour were significantly higher than those in groups 2 and 3. Although the area under the curve of CRP was higher at 0 hour in infants with NEC, there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the areas under the curve of SAA, CRP, and PCT at all measurement times. Levels of SAA decreased earlier than CRP and PCT in the follow-up of NEC (mean SAA levels were 45.8 ± 45.2, 21.9 ± 16.6, 10.1 ± 8.3, and 7.9 ± 5.1 mg/dL at evaluation times, respectively). Levels of CRP and SAA of infants with NEC stages II and III were significantly higher than those with only sepsis and/or NEC stage I.
Serum amyloid A, CRP, and PCT all are accurate and reliable markers in diagnosis of NEC, in addition to clinical and radiographic findings. Higher CRP and SAA levels might indicate advanced stage of NEC. Serial measurements of SAA, CRP, and PCT, either alone or in combination, can be used safely in the diagnosis and follow-up of NEC.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the value of biomarkers to detect severe NEC. The time point of surgery in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is critical. Therefore, there is a need for markers that detect severe NEC, because clinical signs of severe NEC often develop late. This study evaluated the value of biomarkers reflecting intestinal cell damage and inflammation to detect severe NEC. 29 neonates with NEC were included. Two definitions of moderate versus severe NEC were analyzed: medical NEC (n = 12) versus surgical or fatal NEC (n = 17); and Bell stage II NEC (n = 13) versus stage III NEC (n = 16). Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), serum amyloid A (SAA), C3a and C5a, and fecal calprotectin were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count data were measured in blood. In both definitions of moderate versus severe NEC, urinary SAA levels were significantly higher in severe NEC. A cut-off value of 34.4 ng/ml was found in surgical NEC versus medical NEC (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 83%; LR+, 4.88 (95% CI, 1.37-17.0); LR-, 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07-0.60)) at diagnosis of NEC and at one day prior to surgery in neonates who were operated later on. Combination of urinary SAA and platelet count increased the accuracy, with a sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 83%; LR+, 5.53 (95% CI, 1.57-20.0); and LR-, 0.07 (95% CI, 0.01-0.48). Urinary SAA is an accurate marker in differentiating severe NEC from moderate NEC; particularly if combined with serum platelet count.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90834. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different categories of biomarkers of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), including (i) non-specific mediators of the inflammatory cascade, e.g. acute phase reactants, chemokines, cytokines, and cell surface antigens, (ii) enhanced non-specific biomarkers, and (iii) specific gut-associated proteins, have distinctive biochemical characteristics and properties. The appropriateness of using these mediators in specific clinical situations, and the pros and cons of their applications as indicators or predictors of intestinal injury and NEC are highlighted. Many potentially new biomarkers such as micro-RNA, volatile organic compounds and gut microbiomes are currently under investigation. A stringent protocol for biomarker discovery is revealed so that investigators can consider this methodology as a reference for future discovery of organ-specific and/or disease-specific biomarkers for preterm infants.Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 09/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a very devastating problem within the very low birth weight neonatal population. Several experimental therapies are being tested in animal models and soon may be ready for human trials. Despite this progress, we currently have no way to identify infants who would be optimal targets for therapy. Specifically, we are unable to predict which infants will progress to the more severe Bell's stage of disease that may necessitate surgery. Ideally, an algorithm could be constructed that would encompass multiple neonatal and maternal risk factors as well as potential biologic markers of disease so that these infants could be identified in a more timely fashion. This review summarizes the known risk factors and biomarkers of disease in hopes of stimulating clinical research to identify such an "early warning" NEC algorithm.Journal of clinical neonatology. 01/2014; 3(1):1-9.