(+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction
ABSTRACT The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR.
Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo.
ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice.
Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role.
- SourceAvailable from: Surendra Ambegaokar
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- "Many studies have shown that a number of plant-based extracts (phytopharmaceuticals) induce HO-1, leading to ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation. The sources of these compounds are several different plant species and plant organs, ranging from seeds to fruits to leaves to roots                 . Some of these compounds can be Fig. "
ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a highly inducible and ubiquitous cellular enzyme that sub-serves cytoprotective responses to toxic insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, brain HO-1 expression is increased, presumably reflecting an endogenous neuroprotective response against ongoing cellular injury. In contrast,we have found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain, which is also associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration, HO-1 expression is decreased, likely reflecting a unique role for HO-1 deficiency in neurodegeneration pathways activated by HIV infection. We have also shown that HO-1 expression is markedly suppressed by HIV replication in cultured macrophages, which represent the primary cellular reservoir for HIV in the brain. HO-1 deficiency is associated with release of neurotoxic levels of glutamate from both HIV-infected and immune-activated macrophages; this glutamate mediated neurotoxicity is suppressed by pharmacological induction of HO-1 expression in the macrophages.Thus, HO-1 induction could be a therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection against HIV infection and other neuroinflammatory brain diseases. Here, we review various stimuli and signaling pathways regulating HO-1 expression in macrophages, which could promote neuronal survival through HO-1-modulation ofendogenous antioxidant and immune modulatory pathways, thus limiting the oxidative stress that can promote HIV disease progression in the CNS. The use of pharmacological inducers of endogenous HO-1 expression as potential adjunctive neuroprotective therapeutics in HIV infection is also discussed.Current HIV Research 05/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140526122709 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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- "had reported the utilization of amylose-rich starch extracted from this tuberous root in preparation of noodles. The methanolic extract of CR rhizome has been proven to exhibit anti-inflammatory property (Seo et al. 2001), which was further evaluated recently by Tsoyi et al. 2011, who proved that nootkatone and valencene are the major components responsible for anti-inflammation through hemeoxygenase-1 pathway. Lemaure et al. (2007) reported that anti-obese activity of CR is due to stimulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. "
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a major reactive oxygen species produced during oxidative stress, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative conditions. Cyperus rotundus is a traditional medicinal herb that has recently found applications in food and confectionary industries. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (CRE) through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic machinery to attenuate H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been explored. The results obtained demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with CRE for 2 h before administration of H(2)O(2) for 24 h ameliorates the cytotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) as evidenced by MTT and LDH assays. CRE exhibited potent antioxidant activity by regulating the enzymes/proteins levels such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, HSP-70, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. The pretreatment restored H(2)O(2)-induced cellular, nuclear, and mitochondrial morphologies as well as increased the expression of Brain derived nerve growth factor (BDNF). The anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potentials of the plant extract may account for its high content of phenolics, flavonoids, and other active principles. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRE might be developed as an agent for neurodegeneration prevention or therapy.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 08/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10571-012-9865-8 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitrosylation of tyrosine (3-nitro tyrosine, 3-NT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various disorders particularly neurodegenerative conditions and ageing. Cyperus rotundus rhizome is being used as a traditional folk medicine to alleviate a variety of disorders including neuronal stress. The herb has recently found applications in food and confectionary industries also. In current study, we have explored the protective effects of C. rotundus rhizome extract (CRE) through its oxido-nitrosative and anti apoptotic mechanism to attenuate peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) induced neurotoxicity using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results elucidate that pre-treatment of neurons with CRE ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by 500μM SIN-1 to 80% and 24% as evidenced by MTT and LDH assays. CRE inhibited NO generation by downregulating i-NOS expression. SIN-1 induced depletion of antioxidant enzyme status was also replenished by CRE which was confirmed by immunoblot analysis of SOD and CAT. The CRE pre-treatment efficiently potentiated the SIN-1 induced apoptotic biomarkers such as bcl-2 and caspase-3 which orchestrate the proteolytic damage of the cell. The ONOO(-) induced damage to cellular, nuclear and mitochondrial integrity was also restored by CRE. Furthermore, CRE pre-treatment also regulated the 3-NT formation which shows the potential of plant extract against tyrosine nitration. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRE might be developed as a preventive agent against ONOO(-) induced apoptosis.NeuroToxicology 11/2012; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2012.11.002 · 3.05 Impact Factor