(+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction
ABSTRACT The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR.
Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo.
ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice.
Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the hypothesis that the administration of dehydrocostuslactone (DL), a sesquiterpene lactone found in Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae), might reduce organ failure and increase survival in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced mouse model of sepsis due to HO-1 induction. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with DL increased HO-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this up-regulation of HO-1 by DL was significantly inhibited by silencing either Nrf2 and p38 or treating cells with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor), but it was not inhibited in the presence of SP600125 (an ERK inhibitor), PD98059 (a JNK inhibitor), or LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor). As expected, DL concentration dependently inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and the productions of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated cells, and these inhibitions were reversed by silencing HO-1. Most importantly, administration of DL significantly reduced mortality and reduced serum IL-1β and TNF-α and the infiltration of macrophages into liver tissues of CLP-mice. Inducible NOS expression in lung and liver tissues of CLP-mice was reduced by DL, which was reversed by the co-administration of zinc-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX; a competitive inhibitor of HO-1). Our findings indicate that DL might be useful for the treatment of sepsis.International Immunopharmacology 07/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.07.012 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts causes pathological bone destruction, seen in various bone diseases. There is accumulating evidence that certain herbal extracts have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. The fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla has been traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea and enuresis. In this study, we investigated the effects of water extract of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla (WEAO) on osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. Methods For osteoclast differentiation assay, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. RANKL signaling pathways and gene expression of transcription factors regulating osteoclast differentiation were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A constitutively active form of NFATc1 was retrovirally transduced into BMMs. Bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclast was examined on a plate coated with an inorganic crystalline calcium phosphate. The in vivo effect against bone destruction was assessed in a murine model of RANKL-induced osteoporosis by micro-computed tomography and bone metabolism marker analyses. Results WEAO dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from BMMs by targeting the early stages of osteoclast differentiation. WEAO inhibited RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 blunted the inhibitory effect of WEAO on osteoclast differentiation, suggesting that NFATc1 is a critical target of the inhibitory action of WEAO. WEAO inhibited RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos, an upstream activator of NFATc1, by suppressing the classical NF-κB signaling pathway. WEAO also inhibited RANKL-induced down-regulation of Id2 and MafB, negative regulators of NFATc1. WEAO does not directly affect bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In accordance with the in vitro results, WEAO attenuated RANKL-induced bone destruction in mice by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that WEAO exhibits a protective effect against bone loss by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that WEAO might be useful for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 14(1):352. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-352 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.Molecules 07/2014; 19(7):8820-8839. DOI:10.3390/molecules19078820 · 2.10 Impact Factor