Corrigendum: Role of rodent secondary motor cortex in value-based action selection

Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Medical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 16.1). 08/2011; 14(9):1202-8. DOI: 10.1038/nn.2881
Source: PubMed


Despite widespread neural activity related to reward values, signals related to upcoming choice have not been clearly identified in the rodent brain. Here we examined neuronal activity in the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular cortex, corresponding to the primary and secondary motor cortex, respectively, in rats performing a dynamic foraging task. Choice signals, before behavioral manifestation of the rat's choice, arose in the AGm earlier than in any other areas of the rat brain previously studied under free-choice conditions. The AGm also conveyed neural signals for decision value and chosen value. By contrast, upcoming choice signals arose later, and value signals were weaker, in the AGl. We also found that AGm lesions made the rats' choices less dependent on dynamically updated values. These results suggest that rodent secondary motor cortex might be uniquely involved in both representing and reading out value signals for flexible action selection.

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Available from: Suhyun Jo, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "However, some people do regard the lateral and medial parts of the agranular cortex (AGl and AGm) as primary and secondary motor cortices in rodents, respectively. In particular, the AGm is thought to participate not only in fundamental motor functions [31]–[34] but also in higher-order cognitive/motor functions including conditional response [35], action sequence chunking [36], and value-based action selection [37]. Yet the AGl and AGm, which are broad zones defined cytoarchitecturally, are not actually equivalent to genuine primary and secondary motor cortices, respectively [14], [21], [38] (see also Discussion). "
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    ABSTRACT: Rodents have primary and secondary motor cortices that are involved in the execution of voluntary movements via their direct and parallel projections to the spinal cord. However, it is unclear whether the rodent secondary motor cortex has any motor function distinct from the primary motor cortex to properly control voluntary movements. In the present study, we quantitatively examined neuronal activity in the caudal forelimb area (CFA) of the primary motor cortex and rostral forelimb area (RFA) of the secondary motor cortex in head-fixed rats performing forelimb movements (pushing, holding, and pulling a lever). We found virtually no major differences between CFA and RFA neurons, regardless of neuron subtypes, not only in their basal spiking properties but also in the time-course, amplitude, and direction preference of their functional activation for simple forelimb movements. However, the RFA neurons, as compared with the CFA neurons, showed obviously a greater susceptibility of their functional activation to an alteration in a behavioral situation, a 'rewarding' response that leads to reward or a 'consummatory' response that follows reward water, which might be accompanied by some internal adaptations without affecting the motor outputs. Our results suggest that, although the CFA and RFA neurons commonly process fundamental motor information to properly control forelimb movements, the RFA neurons may be functionally differentiated to integrate motor information with internal state information for an adaptation to goal-directed behaviors.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98662. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098662 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In this study, we investigated whether goal-directed action strategies, which require control based on changes in expected outcome value, depend on premotor cortex function. We evaluated the effects of lesions of the premotor cortex (M2) in mice—which is thought to be roughly equivalent to primate pre-SMA (Yin, 2009; Sul et al., 2011)—on the content of learning in an appetitive single-lever pressing task. We concurrently trained mice to make a very similar lever-press (same lever, same location) for the same food reward using a goal-directed versus habitual action strategy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Shifting between motor plans is often necessary for adaptive behavior. When faced with changing consequences of one's actions, it is often imperative to switch from automatic actions to deliberative and controlled actions. The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in primates, akin to the premotor cortex (M2) in mice, has been implicated in motor learning and planning, and action switching. We hypothesized that M2 would be differentially involved in goal-directed actions, which are controlled by their consequences vs. habits, which are more dependent on their past reinforcement history and less on their consequences. To investigate this, we performed M2 lesions in mice and then concurrently trained them to press the same lever for the same food reward using two different schedules of reinforcement that differentially bias towards the use of goal-directed versus habitual action strategies. We then probed whether actions were dependent on their expected consequence through outcome revaluation testing. We uncovered that M2 lesions did not affect the acquisition of lever-pressing. However, in mice with M2 lesions, lever-pressing was insensitive to changes in expected outcome value following goal-directed training. However, habitual actions were intact. We confirmed a role for M2 in goal-directed but not habitual actions in separate groups of mice trained on the individual schedules biasing towards goal-directed versus habitual actions. These data indicate that M2 is critical for actions to be updated based on their consequences, and suggest that habitual action strategies may not require processing by M2 and the updating of motor plans.
    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 08/2013; 7:110. DOI:10.3389/fncom.2013.00110 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    • "Because the animal's response (as monitored by electromyograms) was evident only during the late phase of the delay period, this finding suggests that some MDN neurons conveyed retrospective sensory information at least during the early delay period (Oyoshi et al., 1996). We also have found that several brain structures anatomically related to the MDN, such as the mPFC, orbitofrontal cortex, secondary motor cortex, dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and hippocampus, carry previous choice signals that gradually decay over time during a dynamic foraging task (Kim et al., 2009, 2013; Sul et al., 2010, 2011; Lee et al., 2012). Neural activity related to past actions found in the MDN might be a general characteristic for those brain structures involved in response-reward association; it might serve a role of eligibility trace that can bridge a temporal gap between an action and its outcome (temporal credit assignment problem; Sutton and Barto, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: The neural circuit consisting of mediodorsal nucleus (MDN) of thalamus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in working memory. In order to investigate whether and how the rodent MDN processes working memory-related signals, we recorded activity of single neurons from the MDN in rats performing a delayed spatial alternation task. The MDN conveyed significant neural signals for the animal's previously chosen goal (retrospective information) in the early delay period, but the signals deteriorated gradually over time so that they became weak toward the end of the delay period. Neural signals for the animal's upcoming goal choice (prospective information) were even weaker than those for the previously chosen goal. These results are in contrast to the finding in monkeys that both MDN and PFC persistently maintain task-related neural signals throughout delay period. Our results do not support sustained MDN-PFC interactions as a general mechanism for mediating working memory across different behavioral tasks and/or animal species.
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits 08/2013; 7:128. DOI:10.3389/fncir.2013.00128 · 3.60 Impact Factor
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