Corrigendum: Role of rodent secondary motor cortex in value-based action selection

Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Medical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 16.1). 08/2011; 14(9):1202-8. DOI: 10.1038/nn.2881
Source: PubMed


Despite widespread neural activity related to reward values, signals related to upcoming choice have not been clearly identified in the rodent brain. Here we examined neuronal activity in the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular cortex, corresponding to the primary and secondary motor cortex, respectively, in rats performing a dynamic foraging task. Choice signals, before behavioral manifestation of the rat's choice, arose in the AGm earlier than in any other areas of the rat brain previously studied under free-choice conditions. The AGm also conveyed neural signals for decision value and chosen value. By contrast, upcoming choice signals arose later, and value signals were weaker, in the AGl. We also found that AGm lesions made the rats' choices less dependent on dynamically updated values. These results suggest that rodent secondary motor cortex might be uniquely involved in both representing and reading out value signals for flexible action selection.

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    • "However, some people do regard the lateral and medial parts of the agranular cortex (AGl and AGm) as primary and secondary motor cortices in rodents, respectively. In particular, the AGm is thought to participate not only in fundamental motor functions [31]–[34] but also in higher-order cognitive/motor functions including conditional response [35], action sequence chunking [36], and value-based action selection [37]. Yet the AGl and AGm, which are broad zones defined cytoarchitecturally, are not actually equivalent to genuine primary and secondary motor cortices, respectively [14], [21], [38] (see also Discussion). "
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    ABSTRACT: Rodents have primary and secondary motor cortices that are involved in the execution of voluntary movements via their direct and parallel projections to the spinal cord. However, it is unclear whether the rodent secondary motor cortex has any motor function distinct from the primary motor cortex to properly control voluntary movements. In the present study, we quantitatively examined neuronal activity in the caudal forelimb area (CFA) of the primary motor cortex and rostral forelimb area (RFA) of the secondary motor cortex in head-fixed rats performing forelimb movements (pushing, holding, and pulling a lever). We found virtually no major differences between CFA and RFA neurons, regardless of neuron subtypes, not only in their basal spiking properties but also in the time-course, amplitude, and direction preference of their functional activation for simple forelimb movements. However, the RFA neurons, as compared with the CFA neurons, showed obviously a greater susceptibility of their functional activation to an alteration in a behavioral situation, a 'rewarding' response that leads to reward or a 'consummatory' response that follows reward water, which might be accompanied by some internal adaptations without affecting the motor outputs. Our results suggest that, although the CFA and RFA neurons commonly process fundamental motor information to properly control forelimb movements, the RFA neurons may be functionally differentiated to integrate motor information with internal state information for an adaptation to goal-directed behaviors.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98662. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098662 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "We assumed that choosing, not choosing, and responding to a direction would independently influence the values of the chosen, unchosen, and responded directions. In contrast to the probabilistic learning literature (Kim et al. 2009; Lau and Glimcher 2005; Sul et al. 2010, 2011), the monkeys in the present study could obtain the same amount of reward for every correct trial, regardless of the task or response direction. Therefore, the value of a direction was updated by simply adding a different increment based on how the response was made. "
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    ABSTRACT: When we voluntarily act, we make a decision to do so prior to the actual execution. However, due to the strong tie between decision and action, it has been difficult to dissociate these two processes in an animal's free behavior. In the current study, we tried to characterize the differences in these processes based on their unique history effect. Using simple eye-movement tasks in which the direction of a saccade was either instructed by a computer or freely chosen by the subject, we found that the preceding decision and action had different effects on the animal's subsequent behavior. While choosing a direction (previous decision) produced a positive history effect that prompted the choice of the same saccade direction, making a saccadic response to a direction (previous action) produced a negative history effect that discouraged the monkey from choosing the same direction. This result suggests that the history effect in sequential behavior reported in previous studies was a mixture of these two different components. Future studies on decision-making need to consider the importance of the distinction between decision and action in animal behavior.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 05/2014; 112(4). DOI:10.1152/jn.00846.2013 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    • "In this study, we investigated whether goal-directed action strategies, which require control based on changes in expected outcome value, depend on premotor cortex function. We evaluated the effects of lesions of the premotor cortex (M2) in mice—which is thought to be roughly equivalent to primate pre-SMA (Yin, 2009; Sul et al., 2011)—on the content of learning in an appetitive single-lever pressing task. We concurrently trained mice to make a very similar lever-press (same lever, same location) for the same food reward using a goal-directed versus habitual action strategy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Shifting between motor plans is often necessary for adaptive behavior. When faced with changing consequences of one's actions, it is often imperative to switch from automatic actions to deliberative and controlled actions. The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in primates, akin to the premotor cortex (M2) in mice, has been implicated in motor learning and planning, and action switching. We hypothesized that M2 would be differentially involved in goal-directed actions, which are controlled by their consequences vs. habits, which are more dependent on their past reinforcement history and less on their consequences. To investigate this, we performed M2 lesions in mice and then concurrently trained them to press the same lever for the same food reward using two different schedules of reinforcement that differentially bias towards the use of goal-directed versus habitual action strategies. We then probed whether actions were dependent on their expected consequence through outcome revaluation testing. We uncovered that M2 lesions did not affect the acquisition of lever-pressing. However, in mice with M2 lesions, lever-pressing was insensitive to changes in expected outcome value following goal-directed training. However, habitual actions were intact. We confirmed a role for M2 in goal-directed but not habitual actions in separate groups of mice trained on the individual schedules biasing towards goal-directed versus habitual actions. These data indicate that M2 is critical for actions to be updated based on their consequences, and suggest that habitual action strategies may not require processing by M2 and the updating of motor plans.
    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 08/2013; 7:110. DOI:10.3389/fncom.2013.00110 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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