Cognitive Testing of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire With Typically Developing Youth and Youth With Idiopathic Scoliosis

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
Journal of pediatric orthopedics (Impact Factor: 1.47). 09/2011; 31(6):661-7. DOI: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e318221ea8b
Source: PubMed


The Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) underwent initial psychometric studies, which suggested good reliability and discriminative ability. Although the SAQ is used as a self report of appearance, our center was concerned about its use with youth owing to complex words and vague questions. We conducted this cross-sectional study to evaluate the readability, comprehension, and interpretation of items on the SAQ.
Cognitive interview methodology of 76 youths (8 to 16 y; average age 13) included 31 with scoliosis and 45 typically developing. Subjects were required to read each SAQ item and think aloud to capture cognitive processes about the items and responses. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Problems were categorized and frequencies for each category were calculated.
There were reading and comprehension problems and problems understanding the illustration with every written and pictorial SAQ item, respectively. The percent of subjects who encountered at least one problem ranged from 16% to 96%. Subjects had difficulty with understanding the intent of every SAQ item and with understanding the meaning of specific words such as "prominence" and "flank." The pictorial illustrations for items 2 and 3 were problematic for 58% and 49% of subjects, respectively. The illustrations of the lungs (item 4) and hips (items 4 and 5) were problematic for 42% and 27% of subjects, respectively. These results were consistent regardless of age or diagnoses.
This study does not support the use of the SAQ as currently used with youth owing to use of complex medical words, vague questions, difficult illustrations, and various interpretations of the intent of many of the items.
Not applicable (not an intervention study).

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    • "However, the least responsive SAQ domain to surgery was the Chest. In addition, Mulcahey et al. (2011) pointed out both typicallydeveloping youth and those with idiopathic scoliosis experience problems in understanding every written and pictorial SAQ item, due to complex medical words, vague questions and difficult illustrations. In particular, subjects had difficulty understanding the meaning of specific words such as ''prominence'' and ''flank''. "
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    ABSTRACT: The perspective of trunk deformity is a matter of special concern for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. No research group has ever reported interviewing patients and their parents regarding differences in perception of body appearance in the course of Cheneau brace treatment. We aimed to investigate the level of agreement in the field of concerns and perceptions of spinal appearance in relation to brace- and scoliosis-related data between parents and female patients with AIS, treated with a Cheneau brace, by means of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire-pl (SAQ-pl). In this cross-sectional study forty-one pairs of parents and female patients with AIS were asked to separately complete the Polish versions of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire-pl patient form (SAQ-pl patient form) and the SAQ-pl parent form. Age of patients was 13.60 years SD 1.60 (range 10–17). Patients scored 2.70 (SD 0.60) and parents scored 2.70 SD 0.60 in the total score of the SAQ-pl. The study groups do not differ significantly in regards to the SAQ-pl results. The percentage of consistent answers on SAQ-pl items ranges from 34.10 % (item 20) to 78 % (item 8). Height, age and brace-wearing time per day, were significantly related to the differences in the patient-parent General perception of body shape (rs = −0.51, rs = −0.34, rs = 0.36, respectively). Parents and female patients with AIS have similar concerns and perceptions of spinal appearance. The discrepancies in General perception of spinal appearance between parents and AIS females decrease with age of patient. Parental emotional support may contribute to minimizing the risk factors of psychological impairment, especially in late adolescents with AIS.
    Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2014; 23(7). DOI:10.1007/s10826-013-9776-4 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    • "The internal consistency and divergent validity of SAQ Appearance and TAPS are very similar. As the SAQ Appearance scale is longer and adolescents may have some difficulty with understanding the drawings [23], we suggest the TAPS may be more usable in daily practice. It is a very short form, with only three pictorial items, and it is quick and easy to complete. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Four patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are commonly used to assess body image in idiopathic scoliosis (IS): the Quality of Life Profile for Spinal Deformities (QLPSD), SRS-22 Self-Image scale, Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ), and Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS). The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties of these instruments in patients with IS and report the translational/cultural adaptation of the SAQ to Spanish. Methods The four instruments in a Spanish version were administered to 80 patients with IS aged 10 to 40 years old. The sample was stratified according to scoliosis magnitude (less and more than 45º). Analysis was also conducted for age groups. The psychometric properties studied included convergent and divergent construct validity, as well as internal consistency. Convergent validity was evaluated by correlation analysis between the self-image instruments and Cobb angle. Divergent validity was assessed with correlation analysis between PRO scores and SRS-22 dimensions scores such as Function, Pain and Mental Health. Results In the overall sample, each of the PRO instruments demonstrated high internal consistency (QLPSD Body Image, α = 0.80; SRS-22 Self Image, α = 0.78; SAQ, α = 0.89; TAPS, α = 0.87), also both for younger and adult patients subgroups. Correlation with curve magnitude was significant for each of the four scales. However, the correlation was higher for the pictorial scales (SAQ Appearance r = 0.61, TAPS r = - 0.62) than for the textual scales (QLPSD-bi r = 0.36, SRS-22 Self-Image scale r = - 0.41). In the younger group, correlation between Cobb angle and textual scales (QLPSD-bi and SRS-22 Self-Image Scale) was not significant. Body Image scales showed significant correlations with SRS-22 Pain, Function and Mental Health dimensions. Conclusions All four instruments tested have good psychometric properties. Pictorial scales (SAQ Appearance and TAPS) correlated better with the radiological magnitude of the curve and this correlation is independent of age. Unexpectedly, all four scales demonstrated significant correlations with non-body image dimensions and the divergent hypothesis was not confirmed. Globally, pictorial scales showed slightly better construct validity to test body image perception than textual scales.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 06/2014; 12(1):81. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-81 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report how youths, both with and without idiopathic scoliosis (IS), respond to questions about their self-image and perceptions of body shape. An additional purpose is to describe themes that emerged as important to youths with IS to better understand scoliosis from their perspective. Descriptive qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized. Subject interviews were conducted, as part of a larger cognitive interviewing study on the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire, using a cross-sectional sample of 76 females between 8 and 16 years of age with IS and who were typically developing (TD), without scoliosis. IS and TD subjects revealed similar findings when asked what makes them look good versus their peers; self-image ratings were also positive. Predominant themes from open-ended responses include physical appearance, feelings, brace wear, and discomfort. Self-image and body shape did not differ significantly between groups. The identified themes warrant further exploration as they are significant and important to youth with scoliosis.
    Orthopaedic nursing / National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses 11/2011; 30(6):383-90. DOI:10.1097/NOR.0b013e31823710a0 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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