Passive immunization with anti-Tau antibodies in two transgenic models: reduction of Tau pathology and delay of disease progression.
ABSTRACT The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and several related disorders (tauopathies). In the disease Tau aggregates and becomes hyperphosphorylated forming paired helical and straight filaments, which can further condense into higher order neurofibrillary tangles in neurons. The development of this pathology is consistently associated with progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. The identification of tractable therapeutic targets in this pathway has been challenging, and consequently very few clinical studies addressing Tau pathology are underway. Recent active immunization studies have raised the possibility of modulating Tau pathology by activating the immune system. Here we report for the first time on passive immunotherapy for Tau in two well established transgenic models of Tau pathogenesis. We show that peripheral administration of two antibodies against pathological Tau forms significantly reduces biochemical Tau pathology in the JNPL3 mouse model. We further demonstrate that peripheral administration of the same antibodies in the more rapidly progressive P301S tauopathy model not only reduces Tau pathology quantitated by biochemical assays and immunohistochemistry, but also significantly delays the onset of motor function decline and weight loss. This is accompanied by a reduction in neurospheroids, providing direct evidence of reduced neurodegeneration. Thus, passive immunotherapy is effective at preventing the buildup of intracellular Tau pathology, neurospheroids, and associated symptoms, although the exact mechanism remains uncertain. Tau immunotherapy should therefore be considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylations on tau play in Alzheimer's disease, we have generated highly specific monoclonal antibodies, CP-3 and PG-5, which recognize the PKA-dependent phosphorylations of ser214 and ser409 in tau respectively. The present study demonstrates by immunohistochemical analysis, CP-3 and PG-5 immunoreactivity with neurofibrillary pathology in both early and advanced Alzheimer's disease, but not in normal brain tissue and demonstrates that cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylations on tau precede or are coincident with the initial appearance of filamentous aggregates of tau. Studies using heat-stable preparations demonstrate that neither site appears to be phosphorylated to any appreciable extent in normal rodent or human brain. Further analysis demonstrates that the beta catalytic subunit of PKA (Cbeta), the beta II regulatory subunit of PKA (RIIbeta), and the 79 kDa A-kinase-anchoring-protein (AKAP79), are tightly associated with the neurofibrillary pathology, positioning cAMP-dependent protein kinase to participate directly in the pathological hyperphosphorylation of tau seen in Alzheimer's disease.Journal of Neuroscience 10/1999; 19(17):7486-94. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunotherapeutic strategies to combat neurodegenerative disorders have galvanized the scientific community since the first dramatic successes in mouse models recreating aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) were reported. However, initial human trials of active amyloid-beta (Abeta) vaccination were halted early because of a serious safety issue: meningoencephalitis in 6% of subjects. Nonetheless, some encouraging preliminary data were obtained, and rapid progress has been made toward developing alternative, possibly safer active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches for several neurodegenerative conditions. Many of these are currently in human trials for AD. Despite these advances, our understanding of the essential mechanisms underlying the effects seen in preclinical models and human subjects is still incomplete. Antibody-induced phagocytosis of pathological protein deposits, direct antibody-mediated disruption of aggregates, neutralization of toxic soluble proteins, a shift in equilibrium toward efflux of specific proteins from the brain, cell-mediated immune responses, and other mechanisms may all play roles depending on the specific immunotherapeutic scenario.Annual Review of Neuroscience 02/2008; 31:175-93. · 20.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice (JNPL3), which develop neurofibrillary degeneration and express four-repeat human tau with P301L missense mutation, were characterized biochemically to determine whether the development of aggregated tau from soluble tau involves an intermediate stage. Homogenates from mice of different ages were separated into buffer-soluble (S1), sarkosyl- and salt-extractable (S2) and sarkosyl-insoluble pellet (P3) fractions, and analyzed for human tau distribution, phosphorylation and filament formation. S1 and S2 fractions contained 50-60-kDa tau whereas the S2 fraction also had 64-kDa tau. The level of tau in the P3 fraction increased in an age-dependent manner and correlated positively with the soluble tau concentration. The P3 fraction from 2.5-6.5-month-old mice contained 64- and 50-60-kDa tau, whereas that from 8.5-month and older transgenic animals contained mostly 64-kDa and higher molecular weight tau. The S2 and P3 fractions contained comparable amounts of 64-kDa tau. The 64-kDa tau was predominantly human, and phosphorylated at multiple sites: Thr181, Ser202/Thr205, Thr212, Thr231, Ser262, Ser396/Ser404, Ser409 and Ser422. Most of these sites were phosphorylated to a lesser extent in S2 than in P3 fractions. Tau polymers were detected in P3 fractions from 3-month and older female JNPL3 mice, but not in non-transgenic controls. The results suggest that tau in S2 represents an intermediate from which insoluble tau is derived, and that phosphorylation may play a role in filament formation and/or stabilization.Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2003; 83(6):1498-508. · 3.97 Impact Factor