Effects of antipsychotics with different weight gain liabilities on human in vitro models of adipose tissue differentiation and metabolism.
ABSTRACT Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are serious side effects associated with the use of several second generation antipsychotics (SGA). The adipose tissue has been considered a direct SGA target involved in the development of these adverse effects. Recent studies, mainly using murine cells, have suggested that SGA increase both adipogenesis of preadipocytes and lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes. However, to date there has been little research comparing the effects of antipsychotics with different propensities to induce weight gain on human in vitro models of white adipose tissue neoformation and metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of antipsychotics either strongly associated with weight gain, such as the SGA clozapine and olanzapine, or not, such as the SGA ziprasidone and the classical antipsychotic haloperidol, on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and lipogenesis in human mature adipocytes. Whereas ziprasidone induced elevated levels of cell death during adipogenesis and could not be investigated further, we observed that clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol had slight stimulatory effects on the transcriptional program of ADSCs adipogenesis. However, the observed changes in adipocyte-specific genes were not accompanied by a significant increase in triglyceride accumulation within differentiated adipocytes. Our data also showed that these three antipsychotics displayed inhibitory effects on the proliferation rates of undifferentiated ADSCs. Regarding mature adipocyte metabolism, we observed that olanzapine slightly inhibited insulin-stimulated lipogenesis at the highest concentration used, and haloperidol exerted the strongest inhibitory effects on both basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that a direct and potent effect of clozapine and olanzapine on adipose tissue biology is not an important mechanism by which these SGA induce metabolic disturbances in humans. On the other hand, the haloperidol-mediated downregulation of the lipogenic capacity of human adipose tissue may be a possible mechanism contributing to its lower propensity to induce serious metabolic side effects.