Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

Mathematics, Informatics & Statistics, CSIRO, Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia.
Human movement science (Impact Factor: 2.15). 08/2011; 31(3):604-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2011.06.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.

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    19th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Perth, Australia, 12--16 December 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: An evaluation of human swimming strokes is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics technique Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). This Lagrangian mesh-less approach handles the challenges of the deforming swimmer geometry, multiple phases and complex fluid free surface. Realistic human swimmer geometries are obtained from laser scans of athletes and video footage is used as a reference for animating these swimmer surface meshes. This investigation is composed of two parts, the effect of ankle flexibility on submerged dolphin kick swimming and on the arm thrust generated during backstroke swimming.
    World Conference of Biomechanics; 04/2010
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The velocity of a swimmer is determined by biomechanical and bioenergetics factors. However, little is known about the effect of ankle flexibility on dolphin kick performance. Next to this, scientific evidence is lacking concerning the influence of ankle muscle strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle flexibility and muscle strength on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers. Ankle range of motion (ROM) and ankle muscle strength were measured in 26 healthy competitive swimmers. The effect of both was assessed on the swimmer's velocity and lower extremity joint angles during three maximal dolphin kick trials. Additionally, the effect of a flexibility restriction by a tape on the dolphin kick performance was assessed. Correlations were calculated between the flexibility, muscle strength and dolphin kick performance and differences were investigated between the unrestricted and restricted condition. Muscle strength of dorsal flexors and internal rotators were positively significantly correlated with the velocity. Active and passive plantar flexion ROM and internal rotation ROM were not significantly correlated. A plantar flexion–internal rotation
    Human Movement Science 06/2014; 2014(36):167-176. · 2.06 Impact Factor

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