The Excellent Outcomes of ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation With High Titer (> x2048) Using Anti-CD20 and Anti-CD25 Antibody Without Splenectomy: Two Case Reports
ABSTRACT Due to the shortage of deceased donors, we have expanded the indications for living-donor kidney transplantation (LKT) to include ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) individuals. However, which patients with high-titer anti-blood-group antibody can be transplanted successfully is unclear.
Since 2009 we have performed 2 high-titer ABO-i spousal LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody without splenectomy. In both cases, anti-type A antibody was 2048-fold before antibody removal. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of 2 doses of anti-CD20 antibody (200 mg/body, day -14 to day -7), mycophenolate mofetil (1000 mg), prednisolone (10 mg starting from day -14), calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine [7 mg/kg] or tacrolimus [0.2 mg/kg] starting from day -7), and 2 doses of anti-CD25 antibody (20 mg/body, days 0 and 4). Antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed up to 4 times before LKT according to the antibody titer. The posttransplantation regimen consisted of mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine as antimetabolite. A protocol biopsy was performed at 1 month and 1 year after LKT.
The 60- and 62-year-old men had renal graft transplantation performed in the right hemipelvis without complication. After LKT, urinary output and serum creatinine decrease were within acceptable ranges without evidence of an acute rejection episode for 12 and 7 months, respectively. Patient and graft survival rates were 100%. A protocol biopsy at 1 month after LKT showed additional treatment to be unnecessary. Serious viral infection was not seen, even in the 1 patient who temporarily experienced positive changes in cytomegalovirus antigenemia.
We obtained good clinical results among 2 high-titer ABO-i LKT using anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 antibodies without splenectomy, in conjunction with a calcineurin inhibitor plus mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine.
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ABSTRACT: Background/aims: We investigated the impact of the baseline anti-A/B antibody titer on the clinical outcome in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (IKT). Methods: We included 183 patients who had undergone KT (40 ABO IKT and 143 ABO-compatible KT). Eight patients with a baseline titer of ≥1:512 were assigned to the high-titer group and 32 patients with a baseline titer of ≤1:256 were assigned to the low-titer group. Patients who underwent ABO-compatible KT were used as the control group. We compared the clinical outcomes of the three groups. Results: Before transplantation, the high-titer group displayed more frequent antibody rebound, as shown in a lower titer reduction rate, and more difficulty reaching the target titer (1:16) than the low-titer group. During the postoperative period and out-clinic follow-up, antibody rebound was more frequent, and the rate of acute rejection and infection were significantly higher and allograft function was lower in the high-titer group than in the low-titer and control groups. Multivariate analysis showed that high baseline antibody titer was an independent risk factor for acute rejection. Conclusion: ABO IKT in the high-titer group (baseline titer ≥1:512) required greater caution compared to the low-titer group because of the higher tendency of antibody rebound and the risk for acute rejection.Nephron Clinical Practice 10/2013; 124(1-2):79-88. DOI:10.1159/000355855 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organ shortage is a critical issue in Korea as well as in other countries. In Korea, in 2013, the number of end-stage renal disease patients on the waiting list was 14,600; however, only 1,759 patients received transplantation during 2013. Recent advances in immunosuppression and antibody removal protocols have made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABO IKT) feasible, and have increased the opportunities for patients to undergo transplantation, especially for patients who do not have an ABO-compatible donor. The first ABO IKT was reported in 1955, but was unsuccessful due to the absence of an effective preparation protocol for antibody removal. In the 1980s, Alexandre used a protocol for removal of anti-ABO antibodies for the first time; however, the outcome was still inferior to that of ABO-compatible KT. Since 2000, with the advancement of immunosuppression and plasmapheresis, the outcome of ABO IKT has shown significant improvement and is now comparable to that of ABO-compatible KT. However, there are still several undetermined issues in ABO IKT. For example, issues regarding anti-ABO antibody titer, pretransplant desensitization method, immune suppressant regimen, and the role of C4d have still not been established. In this article, we reviewed the current status and protocol of ABO IKT and addressed to the undetermined issues in this field.01/2014; 28(1):5. DOI:10.4285/jkstn.2014.28.1.5
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ABSTRACT: Background Due to the shortage of deceased donor kidneys, we have expanded the indications for living-donor kidney transplantation (LKT) including ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) donors in Japan. In this study, the utility of protocol biopsies was discussed in ABO-i LKT. Methods Protocol biopsies have been performed on kidney graft 1 hour, 3 weeks, and 1 year after LKT in our institution. The relationship between biopsies and clinical courses was considered retrospectively in 38 cases of ABO-i LKT. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of anti-CD20 antibody, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisolone, calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), and anti-CD25 antibody. Anti-ABO blood type antibody removal by plasmapheresis was performed before LKT up to 32 times. The post-transplantation regimen consisted of mycophenolate mofetil or mizoribine as an antimetabolite. Results Episode biopsies have been performed in 6 cases within 3 weeks post-transplantation. Each pathological diagnosis was as follows: antibody-mediated rejection (AMR; 5 cases) and calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity (1 case). Subclinical chronic active AMR was found at 1 year post-transplantation follow-up biopsies in 4 of the 6 cases. Episode biopsies have been done in the other 6 cases from 1 month to 1 year post-transplantation. Each pathological diagnosis was as follows: acute T-cell–mediated rejection (TMR; 1 case), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; 3 cases), CNI nephrotoxicity (2 cases), and VUR + CNI nephrotoxicity (1 case). AMR was also not found at 1 year post-transplantation follow-up biopsies in them. In all cases episode biopsies were performed based on pathological diagnosis and had no graft dysfunction after that. Conclusions Pathological study revealed that acute AMR was found early (ie, within 3 weeks) following transplantation. Although appropriate treatment made AMR go into remission once, chronic active AMR was often found at 1-year follow-up biopsies.Transplantation Proceedings 03/2014; 46(2):385–387. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.11.073 · 0.98 Impact Factor