Curcumin prevents Cr(VI)-induced renal oxidant damage by a mitochondrial pathway.
ABSTRACT We report the role of mitochondria in the protective effects of curcumin, a well-known direct and indirect antioxidant, against the renal oxidant damage induced by the hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compound potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) in rats. Curcumin was given daily by gavage using three different schemes: (1) complete treatment (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw 10 days before and 2 days after K(2)Cr(2)O(7) injection), (2) pretreatment (400 mg/kg bw for 10 days before K(2)Cr(2)O(7) injection), and (3) posttreatment (400 mg/kg bw 2 days after K(2)Cr(2)O(7) injection). Rats were sacrificed 48 h later after a single K(2)Cr(2)O(7) injection (15 mg/kg, sc) to evaluate renal and mitochondrial function and oxidant stress. Curcumin treatment (schemes 1 and 2) attenuated K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal dysfunction, histological damage, oxidant stress, and the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity both in kidney tissue and in mitochondria. Curcumin pretreatment attenuated K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (alterations in oxygen consumption, ATP content, calcium retention, and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased activity of complexes I, II, II-III, and V) but was unable to modify renal and mitochondrial Cr(VI) content or to chelate chromium. Curcumin posttreatment was unable to prevent K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal dysfunction. In further experiments performed in curcumin (400 mg/kg)-pretreated rats it was found that this antioxidant accumulated in kidney and activated Nrf2 at the time when K(2)Cr(2)O(7) was injected, suggesting that both direct and indirect antioxidant effects are involved in the protective effects of curcumin. These findings suggest that the preservation of mitochondrial function plays a key role in the protective effects of curcumin pretreatment against K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal oxidant damage.
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ABSTRACT: Curcumin, a natural pigment with antioxidant activity obtained from turmeric and largely used in traditional medicine, is currently being studied in chemoprevention of several diseases for its pleiotropic effects and non-toxicity. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the pathogenic mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disorders have been associated with increased oxidative stress, a process inevitably linked with mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study we aimed at investigating if curcumin pretreatment exerts cardioprotective effects in a rat model of subtotal nephrectomy (5/6Nx) and its impact on mitochondrial homeostasis. Curcumin was orally administrated (120mg/kg) to Wistar rats 7 days before nephrectomy and after surgery during 60 days (5/6Nx+curc). Renal dysfunction was detected few days after nephrectomy, whereas changes in cardiac function were observed until the end of the protocol. Our results indicate that curcumin treatment protects against pathological remodeling, diminishes ischemic events, and preserves cardiac function in uremic rats. Cardioprotection was related with diminished reactive oxygen species production, decreased oxidative stress markers, increased antioxidant response, and diminution of active metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). We also observed that curcumin's cardioprotective effects were related with maintaining mitochondrial function. Aconitase activity was significantly higher in the 5/6Nx+curc (408.5±68.7nmol/min/mg protein) than in the 5/6Nx group (104.4±52.3nmol/min/mg protein, P<0.05), and mitochondria from curcumin-treated rats showed enhanced oxidative phosphorylation capacities with both NADH-linked substrates and with succinate plus rotenone (3.6±1 vs. 1.1±0.9 and 3.1±0.7vs. 1.2±0.8, respectively, P<0.05). The mechanisms involved in cardioprotection included both direct antioxidant effects and indirect strategies that could be related with PKC-activated downstream signaling.Free radical biology & medicine 03/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor