Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

University of Pittsburgh.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 09/2007; 28(5-6):536-552. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2007.06.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary school, even after controlling for their temporal stability; and early behavioral inhibition and attention deficits moderate the longitudinal stability in ADHD symptoms. Data were examined using continuous and categorical measures of symptoms. Modest stability in ADHD symptoms from 54 months to third grade was found. Measures of inhibition and inattention predicted later teacher ratings uniquely, but no evidence was found for moderation. Measures of preschool behavioral inhibition also predicted "persistently at risk status" defined by elevated teacher ratings over time. Results are discussed in terms of executive and motivational facets of inhibition that may be related to early signs of ADHD.

  • Source
    • "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most frequently diagnosed disorders in childhood; prevalence estimates for school-age children ranging from 3–18% (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Baumgartel, Wolraich, & Dietrich, 1994; Esser, Schmidt, & Woerner, 1990; Kroes et al., 2001; Pope & Bierman, 1999; Vuchinich, Bank, & Patterson, 1992). A number of studies suggest that ADHD and ODD symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and aggressiveness often emerge in early childhood and remain stable thereafter (Landy & Peters, 1992; Smith et al., 2004; von Stauffenberg et al., 2007). Barkley (1998) has indicated that at least 50% of preschool children with ADHD symptoms will exhibit problematic symptoms into adolescence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study provides preliminary data about a parenting intervention for families of preschoolers with early attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/oppositional defiant disorder symptoms carried out in two diverse primary care pediatric offices. Parents of toddlers completed behavioral screening questionnaires at well-child visits. Eligible parents participated in a 10-week parenting education group using the Incredible Years program. Mothers completed several outcome measures at three time points: before participating in the group, immediately after the group ended, and 6 months thereafter. These measures assessed changes in parenting practices, parenting stress, and child symptoms. Parent and provider satisfaction also were assessed. Mothers reported improvements in parenting skills and a decrease in stress. They also reported a decrease in child aggression and an increase in compliance. Mothers and providers reported high levels of satisfaction. Results support the benefits and feasibility of providing parenting education groups to parents of toddlers in pediatric practice settings.
    Journal of Pediatric Health Care 03/2011; 25(2):77-86. DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.08.008 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Several studies have examined the longitudinal stability of pre-school ADHD (e.g. Speltz et al. 1999; von Stauffenberg & Campbell 2007), and results generally converge on the developmental persistence of early ADHD symptoms. Typically, children characterized as hyperactive during the pre-school years continue to manifest problems with impulsive behaviour, aggression and social adjustment in primary school (Campbell et al. 1986). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper outlines the presentation, aetiology and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pre-school children. A review of current parenting training interventions demonstrates that there is good evidence for their efficacy in reducing symptoms of ADHD in pre-school children, and three interventions are evaluated: The new forest parent training programme (NFPP); the triple P - positive parenting programme and the incredible years parent training programme (IY). The evaluation of the NFPP provides strong evidence demonstrating its effectiveness for pre-school children with ADHD, while the efficacy of the Triple - P and the IY programme have, to date, only been demonstrated on children with conduct problems and co-morbid ADHD. It is suggested that parent training should be the first choice treatment for pre-school children presenting signs of ADHD, and medication introduced only for those children where parent training is not effective. Few moderators of outcome have been identified for these interventions, with the exception of parental ADHD. Barriers to intervention and implementation fidelity will need to be addressed to achieve high levels of attendance, completion and efficacy. The IY programme is a good model for addressing fidelity issues and for overcoming barriers to intervention. The future directions for parent training are also discussed.
    Child Care Health and Development 07/2009; 35(6):754-66. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.00938.x · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although children with ADHD most often come to clinical attention after school entry and difficulties in school often trigger a referral, it seems logical that some signs of emerging problems with inhibition and delay should be evident earlier in development . Recent studies of preschool age children with early symptoms of inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity as rated by mothers and/or teachers indicate that they have more difficulty than children without these symptoms on a range of age-appropriate laboratory measures of impulse control, delay of gratification, and regulation of behavior (Berwid et al. 2005; Campbell et al. 1994; Sonuga-Barke et al. 2002; von Stauffenberg and Campbell 2007). Berwid and colleagues, however, using clearly defined and validated tasks, concluded that preschool children (mean age=5 years) with early symptoms had difficulties with the overall regulation of behavior, rather than specifically with tasks tapping executive functioning as defined by poor inhibitory or attentional control. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We used data from a large, longitudinal study of children in the community, the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, to examine how well earlier measures of delay capacity, inhibitory control, planning, and attention predicted symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in third grade. Children with elevated symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (n = 57) and with inattentive symptoms only (n = 80) were identified via mother and teacher reports using the "or" rule, as were children without significant symptoms (n = 790). Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that poorer performance on earlier measures of resistance to temptation, delay of gratification, response inhibition, attention, and planning obtained from 36 months to 1st grade predicted membership in the two symptom groups relative to the comparison group in 3rd grade, albeit with somewhat different patterns of predictors. Controls for 36 month school readiness and externalizing symptoms indicated that these results were generally robust and not an artifact of initial cognitive or behavioral differences. Implications for developmental models of ADHD are discussed.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 10/2008; 37(1):1-15. DOI:10.1007/s10802-008-9270-4 · 3.09 Impact Factor
Show more


Available from