Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

University of Pittsburgh.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 09/2007; 28(5-6):536-552. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2007.06.011
Source: PubMed


Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary school, even after controlling for their temporal stability; and early behavioral inhibition and attention deficits moderate the longitudinal stability in ADHD symptoms. Data were examined using continuous and categorical measures of symptoms. Modest stability in ADHD symptoms from 54 months to third grade was found. Measures of inhibition and inattention predicted later teacher ratings uniquely, but no evidence was found for moderation. Measures of preschool behavioral inhibition also predicted "persistently at risk status" defined by elevated teacher ratings over time. Results are discussed in terms of executive and motivational facets of inhibition that may be related to early signs of ADHD.

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    • "Thus, the purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between K-CPT performance and parent-report measures of behavior and executive functioning in preschool-aged children from a community-based, non-clinical sample. In addition, given the sex differences in CPT performance observed in samples of older children, we sought to clarify the role of sex in CPT performance of preschool-aged children and extend the research on sex and CPT performance interactions (Berlin & Bohlin, 2002; Berlin et al., 2003; von Stauffenberg & Campbell, 2007). It is our hypothesis that the relationship between K-CPT performance and parent-reported behavioral outcome measures will differ across males and females, with males exhibiting greater symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in relation to errors of commission when compared with girls. "
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between the Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) performance and parent-report measures of child behavior and executive functioning, and clarify the role of sex in K-CPT performance in preschoolers. Mothers and children recruited to the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study with complete 5-year assessment data relevant to the analyses were included (N = 127). We examined the association between K-CPT scores and Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) scores, with covariate adjustment. We found no significant associations between K-CPT, BASC-2, and BRIEF scores in the full sample. In sex-stratified analyses, we found unusually fast reaction time on K-CPT was related to executive control difficulties in girls, whereas unusually slow reaction time was related to the same difficulties in boys. Omission errors were associated with executive difficulties only in boys. The K-CPT may prove to be a useful indicator for early onset of executive control difficulties in preschool-aged children. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715578271 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most frequently diagnosed disorders in childhood; prevalence estimates for school-age children ranging from 3–18% (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Baumgartel, Wolraich, & Dietrich, 1994; Esser, Schmidt, & Woerner, 1990; Kroes et al., 2001; Pope & Bierman, 1999; Vuchinich, Bank, & Patterson, 1992). A number of studies suggest that ADHD and ODD symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and aggressiveness often emerge in early childhood and remain stable thereafter (Landy & Peters, 1992; Smith et al., 2004; von Stauffenberg et al., 2007). Barkley (1998) has indicated that at least 50% of preschool children with ADHD symptoms will exhibit problematic symptoms into adolescence. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study provides preliminary data about a parenting intervention for families of preschoolers with early attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/oppositional defiant disorder symptoms carried out in two diverse primary care pediatric offices. Parents of toddlers completed behavioral screening questionnaires at well-child visits. Eligible parents participated in a 10-week parenting education group using the Incredible Years program. Mothers completed several outcome measures at three time points: before participating in the group, immediately after the group ended, and 6 months thereafter. These measures assessed changes in parenting practices, parenting stress, and child symptoms. Parent and provider satisfaction also were assessed. Mothers reported improvements in parenting skills and a decrease in stress. They also reported a decrease in child aggression and an increase in compliance. Mothers and providers reported high levels of satisfaction. Results support the benefits and feasibility of providing parenting education groups to parents of toddlers in pediatric practice settings.
    Journal of Pediatric Health Care 03/2011; 25(2):77-86. DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.08.008 · 1.44 Impact Factor
    • "The accuracy rate in the original day–night study is reported in Table 2. Subsequent large-scale studies (more than 100 participants) are generally consistent with these original results, with accuracy ranging from 47.47% to 77.43% between ages 3½ and 5½ (e.g., Carlson & Moses, 2001; Leerkes et al., 2008; Roberts & Powell, 2005; von Stauffenberg & Campbell, 2007). Even by age 7 erroneous responding occurs on the task (see Table 2; see also Talwar and Lee (2008)); however, because results are reported in terms of overall accuracy, it is not clear what percentage of children within this older age range are only performing at chance-level. "
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    ABSTRACT: The day–night task is a widely used measurement of interference control in young children between ages 3 and 7. This integrative review examines the development of interference control by describing day–night task performance. We outline essential task demands and task variants, describe theoretical explanations of performance, highlight key methodological concerns relevant to future research, and speculate upon the neural events that likely correspond to distinct components of task performance. The review concludes with suggestions for future investigation.
    Developmental Review 09/2010; 30(3):308 -330. DOI:10.1016/j.dr.2010.07.001 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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