Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although previous echocardiographic studies have demonstrated short-term improvement in cardiovascular remodeling in patients with OSA receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, a long-term study incorporating cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI (CMR) has not been performed to date.
A prospective study of 47 patients with OSA was performed between 2007 and 2010. Cardiac biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin T (TnT), were measured at baseline and serially over 1 year. All patients underwent baseline and serial transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CMR to assess cardiac remodeling.
Following 12 months of CPAP therapy, levels of CRP, NT-proBNP, and TnT did not change significantly from normal baseline values. As early as 3 months after initiation of CPAP, TTE revealed an improvement in right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left atrial volume index, right atrial volume index, and degree of pulmonary hypertension, which continued to improve over 1 year of follow-up. Finally, left ventricular mass, as determined by CMR, decreased from 159 ± 12 g/m(2) to 141 ± 8 g/m(2) as early as 6 months into CPAP therapy and continued to improve until completion of the study at 1 year.
Both systolic and diastolic abnormalities in patients with OSA can be reversed as early as 3 months into CPAP therapy, with progressive improvement in cardiovascular remodeling over 1 year as assessed by both TTE and CMR.
"Therefore, OSA has to be approached not just as a simple snoring problem, but rather should be considered as a medical disorder with systemic features. This notion is supported by the fact that OSA treatment may improve the function of target organs . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea and dyslipidemia are common medical disorders that independently increase vascular morbidity and mortality. Current animal and human data show that, indeed, obstructive sleep apnea may mediate pathological alterations in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. The mechanisms involved are increased lipolysis, decreased lipoprotein clearance, and enhanced lipid output from the liver. Human evidence shows that the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure leads to an improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia. However, more studies are needed, to clarify the pathophysiology of the interrelationship between obstructive sleep apnea and dyslipidemia and whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea will lead to an improvement in the lipid profile and, more importantly, reduce hyperlipidemia-related vascular outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has deteriorating effect on LV function, whereas its impact on RV function is controversial. We aimed to determine the effect of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) function using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 2 dimensional speckle tracking (2D ST) analysis of RV deformation capability.
82 patients with OSA and need for CPAP therapy were prospectively enrolled and underwent TTE at study inclusion and after 6 months of follow up (FU). Multivariate regression analysis revealed an independent association between baseline apical right ventricular longitudinal strain (RV-Sl), BMI and the severity of OSA (apical RV-Sl: P = 0.0002, BMI: P = 0.02). After CPAP therapy, LV functional parameters (LVEF: P<0.0001, LV performance index: P = 0.03, stroke volume: P = 0.042), and apical RV-Sl (P = 0.001) improved significantly. The effect of CPAP therapy was related to severity of OSA (LVEF: AHI 5-14, 66.4±8.8%, 68.5±10.6% [P = ns]; AHI 15-30∶59.8±7.7%, 68.6±9.3% [P = 0.002]; AHI>30∶54.1±12.4%, 68.2±13.6%[P<0.0001]; apical RV-Sl: AHI 5-14: -17.3±8.7%, -16.0±10.8% [P = ns], AHI 15-30: -9.8±6.0%, -15.4±10.9% [P = 0.028], AHI>30: -6.3±5.7%, -17.9±11.2% [P<0.0001]).
OSA seems to have deteriorating effect on LV and RV function. We found a beneficial effect of CPAP on LV and RV functional parameters predominately in patients with severe OSA. 2D speckle tracking might be of value to determine early changes in global and regional right ventricular function.
International journal of cardiology 03/2012; 155(3):465-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.12.026 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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