Background: Data from population studies using ankle⊟brachial index (ABI) measurement to screen patients for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate that most patients with PAD have no symptoms or atypical symptoms besides classical intermittent claudication. We aimed at comparing health-related quality of life and ABI in a cohort of cardiovascular risk persons in a general population. Methods: SF-36 questionnaire was completed and ABI measured from 915 individuals aged 45-70 years with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, newly detected diabetes, body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2), or a 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease death of 5% or more according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system. None of the subjects had symptoms of intermittent claudication. Results: The prevalence of PAD (defined as ABI ≤0.90) and borderline PAD (defined as ABI 0.91-1.00) were 5% (95% CI 4-7%) and 20% (95% CI 18⊟23%), respectively. Patients with PAD had significantly lower quality of life dimension scores for physical functioning, role-physical, general health, and vitality than subjects with normal ABI. Among those with borderline PAD, quality of life was reduced on the general health perception compared to subjects with normal ABI. Conclusion: Health-related quality of life of individuals with asymptomatic or atypical PAD or borderline PAD is worse than that of individuals with normal ABI. The level of ABI is independently related to physical functioning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of ankle-brachial-index (ABI) by manual Doppler is well established to screen for lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) and to predict cardiovascular risk. A new generation of digital-controlled devices promises automated ABI determination. The aim of this study was to determine comparability of automated photoplethysmography (PPG)-derived ABI calculation with the Doppler-ABI algorithm commonly used in cohort studies.
Automated PPG-based ABI measurements [Vascular Explorer (VE) and Vicorder (VI)] were recorded from 112 limbs of healthy subjects and 22 limbs of patients with confirmed LEAD. Validity was evaluated on the basis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of clinical status and concordance with Doppler-ABI. Differences between cuff inflation [inf]- and deflation [def]-based method were studied in VE.
PPG-based ABI values were higher compared to Doppler-ABI (VI +0.06, VEinf +0.15, VEdef +0.09, p < 0.001, respectively). The difference was pronounced in pathological (<0.9), borderline (0.9-0.99) and low normal (1.0-1.09) ABI, but less in ABI ≥1.1. However, ROC analysis revealed excellent diagnostic value for LEAD (sensitivity/specificity) and comparable area under the curve at method-adapted ABI thresholds for all methods: Doppler (95/90 %, 0.95), VI (75/96 %, 0.91), VEinf (85/89 %, 0.93) and VEdef (80/98 %, 0.94).
Digital-controlled PPG-based ABI determination is a useful diagnostic application for LEAD. However, the systematic higher ABI in PPG-based measurement compared to Doppler and remarkable differences between the deflationary and inflationary method are critical for the interpretation of borderline and low normal ABI values where precise reading is essential to detect mild LEAD and subclinical disease and to predict cardiovascular risk.
Clinical Research in Cardiology 05/2012; 101(11):875-83. DOI:10.1007/s00392-012-0471-z · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and compared the results with those of the general population. We also evaluated the possible association between some demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PAD and HRQoL. A cross-sectional study involved 102 consecutive patients with verified PAD referred to the Dedinje Vascular Surgery Clinic in Belgrade. The HRQoL was measured using Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36). Patients with PAD had significantly lower mean SF-36 scores for physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health in comparison with the general population. The HRQoL was significantly more impaired in patients with severe PAD. Patients with PAD had a reduced HRQoL compared with the general population. The impact of PAD on HRQoL was independent of other factors related to both the disease and the HRQoL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The associations of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (HDL‑C) and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL‑C ratio and low ankle brachial index (ABI) were seldom investigated.
Patients and methods:
A population based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 2982 participants 60 years and over were recruited. TG, TC, HDL‑C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed in all participants. Low ABI was defined as ABI ≤ 0.9 in either leg. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to study the association between TG/HDL‑C ratio, TC/HDL‑C ratio and low ABI.
The TG/HDL‑C ratios for those with ABI > 0.9 and ABI ≤ 0.9 were 1.28 ± 1.20 and 1.48 ± 1.13 (P < 0.0001), while the TC/HDL‑C ratios were 3.96 ± 1.09 and 4.32 ± 1.15 (P < 0.0001), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, obesity, current drinking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, lipid-lowering drugs, and cardiovascular disease history, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of low ABI for TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio were 1.10 (0.96, 1.26) and 1.34 (1.14, 1.59) in non-smokers. When TC was further adjusted, the ORs (95 % CIs) were 1.40 (0.79, 2.52) and 1.53 (1.21, 1.93) for TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio, respectively. Non-linear relationships were detected between TG/HDL‑C ratio and TC/HDL‑C ratio and low ABI in both smokers and non-smokers.
TC/HDL‑C ratio was significantly associated with low ABI in non-smokers and the association was independent of TC, TG, HDL‑C, and LDL-C. TC/HDL‑C might be considered as a potential biomarker for early peripheral arterial disease screening.
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