Genetics of circadian rhythms and mood spectrum disorders.
ABSTRACT Mood spectrum disorders (bipolar disorder, recurrent depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder) are accompanied by circadian deregulations, which can occur during acute mood episodes as well as during euthymic periods, and are particularly common among bipolar patients in remission. This suggests that altered circadian rhythms may be biological markers of these disorders. Rhythm dysfunctions have been observed in mood disorder patients by using actigraphic measures and by assessing social metric rhythms, diurnal preferences and melatonin secretion. Since many of these markers are heritable and therefore driven by clock genes, these genes may represent susceptibility factors for mood spectrum disorders. Indeed, several genetic association studies have suggested that certain circadian gene variants play a role in susceptibility to these disorders. Such connections to circadian genes such as CLOCK, ARNTL1, NPAS2, PER3 and NR1D1 have been repeatedly demonstrated for bipolar disorders, and to a lesser extent for recurrent depressive disorders and seasonal affective disorders. The study of circadian phenotypes and circadian genes in mood spectrum disorders represents a major field of research that may yet reveal the pathophysiological determinants of these disorders.
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ABSTRACT: The circadian nature of mood and its dysfunction in affective disorders is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that the circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBα, which is associated with bipolar disorder, impacts midbrain dopamine production and mood-related behavior in mice. Genetic deletion of the Rev-erbα gene or pharmacological inhibition of REV-ERBα activity in the ventral midbrain induced mania-like behavior in association with a central hyperdopaminergic state. Also, REV-ERBα repressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene transcription via competition with nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (NURR1), another nuclear receptor crucial for dopaminergic neuronal function, thereby driving circadian TH expression through a target-dependent antagonistic mechanism. In conclusion, we identified a molecular connection between the circadian timing system and mood regulation, suggesting that REV-ERBα could be targeting in the treatment of circadian rhythm-related affective disorders.Cell 05/2014; 157(4):858-68. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in circadian rhythms play an important role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorders (BD). Previous genetic studies have reported discrepant results regarding associations between circadian genes and susceptibility to BD. Furthermore, plausible behavioral consequences of at-risk variants remain unclear since there is a paucity of correlates with phenotypic biomarkers such as chronotypes. Here, we combined association studies with a genotype/phenotype correlation in order to determine which circadian genes variants may be associated with the circadian phenotypes observed in patients with BD. First, we compared the allele frequencies of 353 single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 21 circadian genes in two independent samples of patients with BD and controls. The meta-analysis combining both samples showed a significant association between rs774045 in TIMELESS (OR = 1.49 95%CI[1.18-1.88]; p = 0.0008) and rs782931 in RORA (OR = 1.31 95%CI[1.12-1.54]; p = 0.0006) and BD. Then we used a "reverse phenotyping approach" to look for association between these two polymorphisms and circadian phenotypes in a subsample of patients and controls. We found that rs774045 was associated with eveningness (p = 0.04) and languid circadian type (p = 0.01), whereas rs782931 was associated with rigid circadian type (p = 0.01). Altogether, these findings suggest that these variants in the TIMELESS and RORA genes may confer susceptibility to BD and impact on circadian phenotypes in carriers who thus had lower ability to properly adapt to external cues.Chronobiology International 04/2014; · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circadian abnormalities may be related to mood disorders. Circadian gene expression was measured in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with affective disorders and controls. Relationships between circadian gene expression, clinical characteristics, and alcohol and psychotropic medication use were noted. Further study is warranted to characterize these relationships.Psychiatry research. 05/2014;