Factors Influencing T Cell Activation and Programmed Death 1 Expression in HIV-Infected Children
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. AIDS research and human retroviruses
(Impact Factor: 2.33).
08/2011; 28(5):465-8. DOI: 10.1089/AID.2011.0113
Immune activation is the best marker of HIV disease progression in both adults and children. However, the factors that drive immune activation in HIV-infected children remain incompletely understood and may differ from those in adults. Immune activation was investigated in a cohort of 93 untreated HIV-infected children, of median age 10.8 years, and 37 HIV-uninfected children. CD8(+) T cell activation, which was higher in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children (p<0.001), did not correlate with viral load (R=-0.03, p=0.838). Similarly, programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression on CD8(+) T cells, which was higher in HIV-infected children than HIV-uninfected children (p<0.001), was not associated with viral load (R=0.11, p=0.40), but correlated with CD8 activation (R=0.41, p=0.002). Both CD8 activation and PD-1 expression were partially driven by the magnitude of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell response. CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) were depleted in HIV-infected, compared to HIV-uninfected, children [median 1.0% (IQR 0.6, 1.9) vs. 2.6% (IQR 1.7, 3.2) CD3 cells; p<0.001]. Depletion was associated with increased CD8 activation (R=-0.27, p=0.068), suggesting that the decline in Tregs may allow immune activation to increase. Taken together, immune activation and PD-1 upregulation in children are not directly driven by viral load but may be influenced by the magnitude of the immune response to HIV itself, and to the depletion of Tregs that occurs during HIV infection. Further understanding of the factors that drive immune activation in children is critical to developing future therapeutic strategies in this population.
Available from: Maximilian Münchhoff
- "Interestingly, in the same study these increased frequencies of Tregs also correlated with the proportion of activated CD8+ T-cells, suggesting the ineffectiveness of these cells to limit immune activation. However, another study in vertically HIV-infected children, showed a depletion of Tregs compared to HIV-negative children when measured as proportion of total T-cells (CD3+ lymphocytes) that was associated with increased levels of immune activation (72). Another study found an association between altered frequencies of Treg subsets and autoantibody production in HIV-positive children highlighting the potential role of Tregs in immunoregulatory pathways that may be disrupted in HIV infection (73). "
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ABSTRACT: The developing immune system is adapted to the exposure to a plethora of pathogenic and non-pathogenic antigens encountered in utero and after birth, requiring a fine balance between protective immunity and immune tolerance. In early stages of life, this tolerogenic state of the innate and adaptive immune system and the lack of immunological memory render the host more susceptible to infectious pathogens like HIV. HIV pathogenesis is different in children, compared to adults, with more rapid disease progression and a substantial lack of control of viremia compared to adults. Plasma viral load remains high during infancy and only declines gradually over several years in line with immune maturation, even in rare cases where children maintain normal CD4 T-lymphocyte counts for several years without antiretroviral therapy (ART). These pediatric slow progressors also typically show low levels of immune activation despite persistently high viremia, resembling the phenotype of natural hosts of SIV infection. The lack of immunological memory places the fetus and the newborn at higher risk of infections; however, it may also provide an opportunity for unique interventions. Frequencies of central memory CD4+ T-lymphocytes, one of the main cellular reservoirs of HIV, are very low in the newborn child, so immediate ART could prevent the establishment of persistent viral reservoirs and result in "functional cure." However, as recently demonstrated in the case report of the "Mississippi child" who experienced viral rebound after more than 2 years off ART, additional immunomodulatory strategies might be required for sustained viral suppression after ART cessation. In this review, we discuss the interactions between HIV and the developing immune system in children and the potential implications for therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
Frontiers in Immunology 08/2014; 5:391. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00391
Available from: Rafael José Argüello
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ABSTRACT: The association between immune dysfunction and the development of autoimmune pathology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is not clear. The frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells, as well as the presence of autoantibodies, were evaluated in a paediatric cohort of HIV-infected patients without clinical evidence of autoimmune disease. Lower absolute counts but higher percentages of total CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) T cells were recorded in children with severe immunosuppression than in those without evidence of immunosuppression. The frequencies of classical CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells were not altered, whereas CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells were found increased significantly in patients with severe immunosuppression. Like classical regulatory T cells, CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells display higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) but lower CD127 expression compared with CD4(+) FoxP3(-) CD25(+) T cells. An improvement in CD4(+) T cell counts, along with a decrease in viral load, was associated with a decrease in CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells. The majority of the patients with severe immunosuppression were positive for at least one out of seven autoantibodies tested and displayed hypergammaglobulinaemia. Conversely, HIV-infected children without evidence of immunosuppression had lower levels of autoantibodies and total immunoglobulins. A decline in CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T cell numbers or a variation in their phenotype may induce a raise in antigen exposure with polyclonal B cell activation, probably contributing to the generation of autoantibodies in the absence of clinical autoimmune disease.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology 05/2012; 168(2):224-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2012.04569.x · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The course of immune maturation has evolved to favour survival at each stage of development in early life. Fetal and neonatal immune adaptations facilitate intrauterine survival and provide early postnatal protection against extracellular pathogens, but they leave infants susceptible to intracellular pathogens such as viruses that are acquired perinatally. This Review focuses on three such pathogens--HIV, hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus--and relates the differential impact of these infections in infants and adults to the antiviral immunity that is generated at different ages. A better understanding of age-specific antiviral immunity may inform the development of integrated prevention, treatment and vaccine strategies to minimize the global disease burden resulting from these infections.
Nature Reviews Immunology 08/2012; 12(9):636-48. DOI:10.1038/nri3277 · 34.99 Impact Factor
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