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DR. PAWAN K AGRAWAL
Natural Product Inc.
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Westerville, Ohio 43081, USA
PROFESSOR ALESSANDRA BRACA
Dipartimento di Chimica Bioorganicae Biofarmacia,
Universita di Pisa,
via Bonanno 33, 56126 Pisa, Italy
PROFESSOR DEAN GUO
State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs,
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Beijing 100083, China
PROFESSOR YOSHIHIRO MIMAKI
School of Pharmacy,
Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences,
Horinouchi 1432-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
PROFESSOR STEPHEN G. PYNE
Department of Chemistry
University of Wollongong
Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, Australia
PROFESSOR MANFRED G. REINECKE
Department of Chemistry,
Texas Christian University,
Forts Worth, TX 76129, USA
PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. SETZER
Department of Chemistry
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
Huntsville, AL 35809, USA
PROFESSOR YASUHIRO TEZUKA
Institute of Natural Medicine
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama,
2630-Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
PROFESSOR DAVID E. THURSTON
Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry,
The School of Pharmacy,
University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square,
London WC1N 1AX, UK
Prof. Berhanu M. Abegaz
Prof. Viqar Uddin Ahmad
Prof. Øyvind M. Andersen
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Chicago, IL, USA
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Tucson, AZ, USA
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Mexico, D. F, Mexico
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Prof. Hartmut Laatsch
Prof. Marie Lacaille-Dubois
Prof. Shoei-Sheng Lee
Prof. Francisco Macias
Prof. Imre Mathe
Prof. Joseph Michael
Johannesburg, South Africa
Prof. Ermino Murano
Prof. M. Soledade C. Pedras
Prof. Luc Pieters
Prof. Peter Proksch
Prof. Phila Raharivelomanana
Tahiti, French Plynesia
Prof. Monique Simmonds
Prof. Valentin Stonik
Prof. Winston F. Tinto
Barbados, West Indies
Prof. Karen Valant-Vetschera
Prof. Peter G. Waterman
PROFESSOR GERALD BLUNDEN
The School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences,
University of Portsmouth,
Portsmouth, PO1 2DT U.K.
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the
Essential Oil of Lantana camara var. moritziana
Nurby Rios Tescha*, Flor Moraa, Luis Rojasb, Tulia Díazc, Judith Velascoc, Carlos Yánezd,
Nahile Riosd, Juan Carmonaa and Sara Pasqualee
aDepartamento de Farmacognosia y Medicamentos Orgánicos. bInstituto de Investigaciones.
cDepartamento de Microbiología. dDepartamento de Farmacología y Toxicología. eDepartamento de
Farmacia Galenica. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioanálisis. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida,
Received: December 14th , 2010; Accepted: March 16th, 2011
The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) López-Palacios collected at Rubio, Táchira
State, Venezuela, was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger trap (0.1% yield). The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC/MS) on HP GC-MS System, model 5973, identifying 33 compounds (97.1%) of which the major components were
germacrene D (31.0%), followed by β-caryophyllene (14.8%), α-phellandrene (6.7%), limonene (5.7%) and 1,8-cineole (5.2%). Evaluation of
the antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method with discs against international reference bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus
faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) showed growing inhibition of E. faecalis
and S. aureus at MIC of 350 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL, respectively.
Keywords: Lantana camara, Verbenaceae, essential oil, antibacterial activity.
Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae) is an ornamental
grass with aromatic leaves, orange to bright red flowers
and blue or black fruits (drupes). It is native to tropical
and warm regions worldwide [1-3]. These plants are
used in ethnomedicine to treat various diseases of the
gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, as well as
tranquilizers, anti-tumor, rheumatism, hypertension,
uterine bleeding, and applied externally as an antiseptic to
treat leprosy, scabies, tetanus, pustules [4-8].
In Venezuela we found 17 species of Lantana Linn among
which Lantana camara L. commonly known as red
cariaquito, is frequently found as three varieties L. camara
var aculeata (L.) Moldenke (L.), L. camara. var. mista
(L.) L H Bailey, and L. camara var. moritziana (Otto and
Dietr.) Lopez-Palacios [2,9-11]. The last one is a shrub
sometimes of unpleasant smell with yellow to orange or
red flowers which are small and fragrant [10,11].
Previous studies on the analysis of the chemical
composition of the essential oil of Lantana camara from
different parts of the world have been reported: studies of
the essential oil of Lantana camara growing in Brail
showed the presence of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and
bisabolone derivatives. Germacrene D is one of the mayor
component; even at different times of collection [12-14].
From Madagascar, Africa, the main constituents found
were β-caryophyllene (19%), an unknown sesquiterpene
(16%), and δ-3-carene (10%) . From Calicut, India, the
major ones were β-caryophyllene (34.8%), geranyl acetate
(22.1%) terpinyl acetate (5.8%), bornyl acetate (4.1%) and
Lantana essential oil is used in traditional medicine, for
example, with insecticidal and nematicidal properties
[16,17]. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Lantana
camara was found against Tribolium castaneum (LC50
0.45mg/cm2) . This oil showed antibacterial activity
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MBC 10 μg/mL,
Staphylococcus aureus MBC 25 μg/mL, E. coli 1.25
μg/mL and antifungal Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani,
Candida albicans [3,6,8,19,20].
In the present investigation, the study of the composition
and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Lantana
camara var. moritziana is presented. Leaves of Lantana
camara var. moritziana were hydrodistilled yielding 0.1%
of the essential oil. Analysis of this by GC-MS allowed the
identification of thirty three compounds (97.1% of
whole sample), which are listed in Table 1. The three
major ones were Germacrene D (31.0%), β-caryophyllene
(14.8%) and α-phellandrene (6.7%). Germacrene D and
β-caryophyllene were also found as main constituents
in the composition of the essential oils of Lantana camara
NPC Natural Product Communications
1031 - 1034
1032 Natural Product Communications Vol. 6 (7) 2011 Tesch et al.
Table 1: Chemical composition of essential oil of Lantana camara var.
27 Germacrene D
31 Germacrene B
33 Caryophyllene oxide
*Compounds were identified by comparison of the mass spectrum of each
component with the Wiley GC/MS library data base and from logarithmic
retention index (LRI) data. Area % was determined by GC-FID.
Table 2: Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Lantana camara
Inhibition zone (mm)*
Oil E VA SAM AZT CIP CAZ
E: Erythromycin® 150μg, VA: Vancomycin® (30 μg ), SAM: Sulbactam -
Ampicillin® (10μg/10μg), AZT: Aztreonam® (30μg) , CIP: Ciprofloxacin®
(30μg), CAZ: Ceftazidime® (30 μg), NA: non active, NT: not tested.
*Inhibition zone, diameter measured in mm, disc diameter 6 mm, average
of two consecutive assays.
MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration, concentration range 10-600
from several countries [6,8,13,14,16,21-23]. Citral has
been detected as the common major compound from five
varieties of L. camara from Egypt .
Bacterial resistance is a growing phenomenon driven
primarily by indiscriminate and irrational use of
antibiotics. Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and E.
faecalis has emerged as a serious public-health problem
that demands increased vigilance in the diagnosis and
investigation of new alternative treatments .
The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Lantana
camara var. moritziana was evaluated. The oil had a weak
activity against S. aureus ATCC (25923) and E. faecalis
ATCC (29212) with MIC values of 400 and 350μg/mL,
respectively. The complete results are shown in Table 2.
Plant material: The leaves of Lantana camara var.
moritziana were collected (April, 2010) at Rubio, Táchira
State, Venezuela, located at 101 m.s.n.m 8°53'07"N
64°89'11"O. A voucher specimen Nº NR005, has been
deposited at the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy and
Bioanalysis, University of the Andes (MERF herbarium).
Isolation of the essential oil: Fresh leaves (1000g) were
cut into small pieces and subjected to hydrodistillation for
6 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. One mL of pale
yellow essential oil (0.1% yield) was obtained. The oil was
kept at -4 ° C until used for biological tests.
Gas chromatography: The volatile components of
essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography
using a Perkin-Elmer chromatograph. A 5% phenylmethyl
polysiloxane fused-silica column (AT-5, Alltech Associates
Inc., Deerfield, IL), 60 m x 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25
m, was used. The initial oven temperature was 60°C; it
was then heated to 260°C at 4°C/min, and the final
temperature maintained for 20 min. The injector and
detector temperatures were 200°C and 250°C, respectively.
The carrier gas was helium at 1.0 mL/min. The sample (1
μL) was injected using a Hewlett-Packard ALS injector
with a split ratio of 50:1. The identification of each of the
compounds was performed by GC-MS with a Hewlett
Packard Model 5973, equipped with a HP-5MS column 30
m long x 0.25 diameter, film thickness 0.25 μm Hewlett-
Packard. The oven temperature program was the same as
that used for the HP-5 column for GC analysis; the transfer
line temperature was programmed from 150ºC to 280ºC;
Injector temperature 230ºC, interphaase temperature
150°C, helium carrier gas at a linear speed of 34 m/s,
ionization energy 70 eV, scan range of 40-50 amu, 3.9
scan /s. Injection volume 1 μL of a solution diluted to 2%
in diethyl ether. The identification of compounds was
based on database Wiley and NIST MS Data Library 05,
logarithmic retention indices (LRI) were compared with
values available in the literature (6th edition) .
Essential oil of Lantana camara var. moritziana Natural Product Communications Vol. 6 (7) 2011 1033
Bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923,
Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli
ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 23357,
Salmonella Typhi CDC57 y Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 27853 were used in this study, provided by the
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of
Pharmacy and Bioanalysis, University of the Andes.
Antibacterial method: Antibacterial activity was evaluated
according to the agar diffusion method with disks .
The strains were maintained in agar conservation at room
temperature. Every bacterial inoculum (2.5 mL) was
incubated in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37ºC for 18 h. The
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined
only against organisms that showed inhibition zone,
preparing dilutions of the oil with dimethylsulfoxide at
concentrations of 10 to 600 μg/mL. The reference
antibiotics employed were:
Vancomycin® 30 μg, Sulbactam-Ampicillin® 10 μg/10 μg,
Aztreonam® 30 μg, Ciprofloxacin® 30 μg, and Ceftaxidime®
30 μg. The tests were performed in duplicate.
Acknowledgments – The authors would like to thank
Consejo de Desarrollo Científico, Humanístico, Tecnoló-
gico y de las Artes (CDCHTA-Mérida-Venezuela) for
financial support of this study (Project FA-480-10-08-B).
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Natural Product Communications Vol. 6 (7) 2011
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