Interventions for prevention and treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women with HIV infection
ABSTRACT Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common fungal infections that recur frequently in HIV infected women. Symptoms of VVC are pruritis, discomfort, dyspareunia, and dysuria. Vulval infection presents as a morbiliform rash that may extend to the thighs. Vaginal infection is associated with white discharge, and plaques are seen on erythematous vaginal walls.Even though rarely or never resulting in systemic fungal infection or mortality, left untreated these lesions contribute considerably to the morbidity associated with HIV infection. Prevention and treatment of this condition is an essential part of maintaining the quality of life for these individuals.
-To compare the efficacy of various antifungals given vaginally or orally for the treatment and prophylaxis of VVC in HIV-infected women and to evaluate the risks of the same.
The search strategy was comprehensive, iterative and based on that of the HIV/AIDS Cochrane Review Group. The aim was to locate all relevant trials, irrespective of publication status or language. Electronic databases :CENTRAL,Medline, EMBASE, LILACS and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials for the years 1980 to 1st October 2010. WHO ICTRP site and other relevant web sites were also searched for conference abstracts.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of palliative, preventative or curative therapy were considered. Participants were HIV positive women receiving one or more of the following:treatment / prophylaxis for VVC or HAART(Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy).
Three authors independently assessed the methodological quality of the trials and extracted data. The quality of the evidence generated was graded using the GRADE PRO approach.
Our search did not yield any trial investigating treatment of VVC in HIV positive women.Two trials dealing with prophylaxis were eligible for inclusion.One trial (n= 323) favoured the use of weekly Fluconazole as compared to placebo (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.97).The second trial with three arms of comparison;Clotrimazole,Lactobacillus and Placebo gave no definitive results in preventing an episode of VVC. Clotrimazole against placebo (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.09), Clotrimazole against lactobacillus (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.45 to 2.76) and lactobacillus against placebo (RR 0.54 ;95% CI 0.26 to 1.13).
Implications for practiceNo trials were found addressing treatment of VVC in HIV positive women.In comparison to placebo,Fluconazole was found to be an effective preventative intervention. However, the potential for resistant Candida organisms to develop might impact the feasibility of implementation.Direction of findings suggests that Clotrimazole and Lactobacillus improved the prophylactic outcomes when compared to placebo.Implications for research There is a need to evaluate drugs and drug regimens for VVC treatment and prophylaxis in HIV positive women through randomised clinical trials. Development of resistance to azoles remains under-studied and more work must be done in this area, so as to determine whether routine prophylaxis for VVC is at all needed or whether adequate ART would be sufficient to prevent recurrent VVC. The viral load in vaginal secretions with or without treatment or prophylaxis has not been studied, this is very relevant to the spread of HIV.
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ABSTRACT: The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) provides a solid surface for attachment of microorganisms and an ideal niche for the biofilm to form and flourish. Vaginal candidiasis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of vaginal can-didiasis that develops in connection with IUD use requires their immediate removal. Here, we present in vitro evidence to support the use of combination therapy to inhibit Candida biofilm. Twenty-three clinical Candida isolates (10 C. krusei and 13 C. tropicalis) recovered from endocervical swabs obtained from IUD and non-IUD users were assessed for biofilm-formation ability. The rate of isolation of Candida did not differ significantly among IUD and non-IUD users (P = 0.183), but the biofilm-formation ability of isolates differed significantly (P = 0.02). An in vitro biofilm model with the obtained isolates was subjected to treatment with amphotericin B, tyrosol, and a combination of amphotericin B and tyrosol. Inhibition of biofilm by amphotericin B or tyrosol was found to be con-centration dependent, with 50% reduction (P < 0.05) at 4 mg/l and 80 µM, respectively. Hence, a combination effect of tyrosol and amphotericin B was studied. Interestingly, ap-proximately 90% reduction in biofilm was observed with use of 80 µM tyrosol combined with 4 mg/l amphotericin B (P < 0.001). This represents a first step in establishing an appropriate antibiofilm therapy when yeasts are present.Medical Mycology 06/2014; 00(8):1-9. DOI:10.1093/mmy/myu046 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:20. DOI:10.1155/2014/350195 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2013; 28(6):2039-89. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.6.6856 · 1.25 Impact Factor