RISK and SAFE signaling pathway interactions in remote limb ischemic perconditioning in combination with local ischemic postconditioning.
ABSTRACT Local ischemic postconditioning (IPost) and remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPer) are promising methods to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We tested whether the use of the two procedures in combination led to an improvement in cardioprotection through a higher activation of survival signaling pathways. Rats exposed to myocardial I/R were allocated to one of the following four groups: Control, no intervention at myocardial reperfusion; IPost, three cycles of 10-s coronary artery occlusion followed by 10-s reperfusion applied at the onset of myocardial reperfusion; RIPer, 10-min limb ischemia followed by 10-min reperfusion initiated 20 min after coronary artery occlusion; IPost+RIPer, IPost and RIPer in combination. Infarct size was significantly reduced in both IPost and RIPer (34.25 ± 3.36 and 24.69 ± 6.02%, respectively) groups compared to Control (54.93 ± 6.46%, both p < 0.05). IPost+RIPer (infarct size = 18.04 ± 4.86%) was significantly more cardioprotective than IPost alone (p < 0.05). RISK pathway (Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK-3β) activation was enhanced in IPost, RIPer, and IPost+RIPer groups compared to Control. IPost+RIPer did not enhance RISK pathway activation as compared to IPost alone, but instead increased phospho-STAT-3 levels, highlighting the crucial role of the SAFE pathway. In IPost+RIPer, a SAFE inhibitor (AG490) abolished cardioprotection and blocked both Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylations, whereas RISK inhibitors (wortmannin or U0126) abolished cardioprotection and blocked STAT-3 phosphorylation. In our experimental model, the combination of IPost and RIPer improved cardioprotection through the recruitment of the SAFE pathway. Our findings also indicate that cross talk exists between the RISK and SAFE pathways.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined the role for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in acute opioid-induced cardioprotection (OIC) and whether opioid-induced glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3 beta) inhibition is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway. Rats underwent 30 min of ischemia and either 5 min or 2 h of reperfusion, followed by tissue isolation for molecular analysis or infarct size assessment, respectively. Rats were treated with vehicle, morphine (300 microg/kg), the delta-opioid agonist fentanyl isothiocynate (FIT, 10 microg/kg), or the GSK inhibitor SB-216763 (SB21, 600 microg/kg) 10 min before ischemia. Five minutes before opioid or SB21 treatment, some rats received the putative JAK2 inhibitor AG-490 (3 mg/kg) or the putative JAK3 inhibitor ZM-449829 (3 mg/kg). H9C2 cardiomyoblast cells were also used to investigate FIT-induced signaling (1 microM) in vitro via molecular analysis. Morphine induced the phosphorylation of JAK2, yet not JAK1, in the area at risk. Morphine, FIT, and SB21 also reduced infarct size compared with vehicle (water) when administered before ischemia [43.0 +/- 2.8, 39.1 +/- 3.1, and 42.1 +/- 2.5 (*P < 0.001, respectively) vs. 58.1 +/- 1.3%, respectively]. AG-490 abrogated OIC, whereas ZM-449829 had no effect on OIC. Cardioprotection was afforded by SB21 even in the presence of AG-490. Morphine phosphorylated STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3beta, and phosphorylation was abrogated by AG-490. FIT stimulation of H9C2 cells also caused a time-dependent phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3beta, and this effect was abrogated by AG-490. STAT3 phosphorylation was also dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation in both tissue and H9C2 cells. These data suggest that OIC occurs via the JAK2 regulation of PI3K pathway-dependent STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3 beta, with GSK-3 beta contributing a central role in acute OIC.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2006; 291(2):H827-34. · 3.63 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transient episodes of ischemic preconditioning (PC) render myocardium protected against subsequent lethal injury after ischemia and reperfusion. Recent studies indicate that application of short, repetitive ischemia only during the onset of reperfusion after the lethal ischemic event may obtain equivalent protection. We assessed whether such ischemic postconditioning (Postcon) is cardioprotective in pigs by limiting lethal injury. Pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, open-chest pigs underwent 30 min of complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 3-h reflow. PC was elicited by two cycles of 5-min occlusion plus 10-min reperfusion before the 30-min occlusion period. Postcon was elicited by three cycles of 30-s reperfusion, followed by 30-s reocclusion, after the 30-min occlusion period and before the 3-h reflow. Infarct size (%area-at-risk using triphenyltetrazolium chloride macrochemistry; means +/- SE) after 30 min of ischemia was 26.5 +/- 5.2% (n = 7 hearts/treatment group). PC markedly limited myocardial infarct size (2.8 +/- 1.2%, n = 7 hearts/treatment group, P < 0.05 vs. controls). However, Postcon had no effect on infarct size (37.8 +/- 5.1%, n = 7 hearts/treatment group). Within the subendocardium, Postcon increased phosphorylation of Akt (74 +/- 12%) and ERK1/2 (56 +/- 10%) compared with control hearts subjected only to 30-min occlusion and 15-min reperfusion (P < or = 0.05), and these changes were not different from the response triggered by PC (n = 5 hearts/treatment group). Phosphorylation of downstream p70S6K was also equivalent in PC and Postcon groups. These data do not support the hypothesis that application of 30-s cycles of repetitive ischemia during reperfusion exerts a protective effect on pig hearts subjected to lethal ischemia, but this is not due to a failure to phosphorylate ERK and Akt during early reperfusion.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2006; 290(3):H1011-8. · 3.63 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (Pre-con) is an adaptive response triggered by a brief ischemia applied before a prolonged coronary occlusion. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive ischemia applied during early reperfusion, i.e., postconditioning (Post-con), is cardio-protective by attenuating reperfusion injury. In anesthetized open-chest dogs, the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded for 60 min and reperfused for 3 h. In controls (n = 10), there was no intervention. In Pre-con (n = 9), the LAD was occluded for 5 min and reperfused for 10 min before the prolonged occlusion. In Post-con (n = 10), at the start of reperfusion, three cycles of 30-s reperfusion and 30-s LAD reocclusion preceded the 3 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was significantly less in the Pre-con (15 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and Post-con (14 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) groups compared with controls (25 +/- 3%). Tissue edema (% water content) in the area at risk was comparably reduced in Pre-con (78.3 +/- 1.2, P < 0.05) and Post-con (79.7 +/- 0.6, P < 0.05) versus controls (81.5 +/- 0.4). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation (myeloperoxidase activity, Deltaabsorbance.min-1.g tissue-1) in the area at risk myocardium was comparably reduced in Post-con (10.8 +/- 5.5, P < 0.05) and Pre-con (13.4 +/- 3.4, P < 0.05) versus controls (47.4 +/- 15.3). Basal endothelial function measured by PMN adherence to postischemic LAD endothelium (PMNs/mm2) was comparably attenuated by Post-con and Pre-con (15 +/- 0.6 and 12 +/- 0.6, P < 0.05) versus controls (37 +/- 1.5), consistent with reduced expression of P-selectin on coronary vascular endothelium in Post-con and Pre-con. Endothelial function assessed by the maximal vasodilator response of postischemic LAD to acetylcholine was significantly greater in Post-con (104 +/- 6%, P < 0.05) and Pre-con (109 +/- 5%, P < 0.05) versus controls (71 +/- 8%). Plasma malondialdehyde (microM/ml), a product of lipid peroxidation, was significantly less at 1 h of reperfusion in Post-con (2.2 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) versus controls (3.2 +/- 0.3) associated with a decrease in superoxide levels revealed by dihydroethidium staining in the myocardial area at risk. These data suggest that Post-con is as effective as Pre-con in reducing infarct size and preserving endothelial function. Post-con may be clinically applicable in coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass surgery, organ transplantation, and peripheral revascularization where reperfusion injury is expressed.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2003; 285(2):H579-88. · 3.63 Impact Factor