Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection stimulates Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxins producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli causes the spectrum of gastrointestinal and systemic complications, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is fatal in ∼10% of patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of Stx endocytosis by enterocytes and the toxins cross the intestinal epithelium are largely uncharacterized. We have studied Shiga toxin 1 entry into enterohemorrhagic E. coli-infected intestinal epithelial cells and found that bacteria stimulate Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis through actin remodeling. This enterohemorrhagic E. coli-caused macropinocytosis occurs through a nonmuscle myosin II and cell division control 42 (Cdc42)-dependent mechanism. Macropinocytosis of Shiga toxin 1 is followed by its transcytosis to the basolateral environment, a step that is necessary for its systemic spread. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis significantly decreases toxin uptake by intestinal epithelial cells and in this way provides an attractive, antibiotic-independent strategy for prevention of the harmful consequences of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Anne V Kane[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb(3). We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 01/2012; 2:135. · 2.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Life-threatening intestinal and systemic effects of the Shiga toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) require toxin uptake and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells stimulates toxin macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Host actin rearrangement necessary for EHEC attachment to enterocytes is mediated by the type 3 secretion system which functions as a molecular syringe to translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into host cells. Actin-dependent EHEC attachment also requires the outer membrane protein intimin, a major EHEC adhesin. Here, we investigate the role of type 3 secretion in actin turnover occurring during toxin macropinocytosis. Toxin macropinocytosis is independent of EHEC type 3 secretion and intimin attachment. EHEC soluble factors are sufficient to stimulate macropinocytosis and deliver toxin into enterocytes in vitro and in vivo; intact bacteria are not required. Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells. The apical macropinosomes formed in intestinal epithelial cells move through the cells and release their cargo at these cells' basolateral sides. Further analysis of EHEC secreted proteins shows that a serine protease EspP alone is able to stimulate host actin remodeling and toxin macropinocytosis. The observation that soluble factors, possibly serine proteases including EspP, from each of two genetically distinct toxin-producing strains, can stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis and transcellular transcytosis alters current ideas concerning mechanisms whereby Shiga toxin interacts with human enterocytes. Mechanisms important for this macropinocytic pathway could suggest new potential therapeutic targets for Shiga toxin-induced disease.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69196. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is dependent on release of Shiga toxins (Stxs) during intestinal infection and subsequent absorption into the bloodstream. An understanding of Stx-related events in the human gut is limited due to lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we have used a vertical diffusion chamber system with polarised human colon carcinoma cells to simulate the microaerobic (MA) environment in the human intestine and investigate its influence on Stx release and translocation during STEC O157:H7 and O104:H4 infection. Stx2 was the major toxin type released during infection. Whereas microaerobiosis significantly reduced bacterial growth as well as Stx production and release into the medium, Stx translocation across the epithelial monolayer was enhanced under MA versus aerobic conditions. Increased Stx transport was dependent on STEC infection and occurred via a transcellular pathway other than macropinocytosis. While MA conditions had a similar general effect on Stx release and absorption during infection with STEC O157:H7 and O104:H4, both serotypes showed considerable differences in colonisation, Stx production, and Stx translocation which suggest alternative virulence strategies. Taken together, our study suggests that the MA environment in the human colon may modulate Stx-related events and enhance Stx absorption during STEC infection.Cellular Microbiology 02/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor