C-reactive protein in adolescent twins: patterns and relationship to adiposity.
ABSTRACT Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of cardiovascular risk in adults. Patterns and determinants of CRP in adolescents have not been well described.
This study aimed to determine how CRP varies by age, gender, Tanner stage, and body fat composition in rural Chinese adolescents and to what degree adiposity-CRP associations are attributable to shared genetic and environmental factors.
Data were derived from an ongoing study of metabolic syndrome in a large community-based twin cohort enrolled in Anqing, China.
The study sample included 1180 adolescent twins aged 13-21 yr.
Plasma CRP concentrations were measured by sandwich immunoassay using flow metric xMAP technology. Body fat composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
CRP levels linearly increased across age and Tanner stage in males (P ≤ 0.0001), but in females, CRP exhibited no trend after adjusting for fat mass (P > 0.05). For males, the most explanatory measure was body mass index (partial r(2) = 5.2%), whereas percent body fat (partial r(2) = 8.8%) was more explanatory in females. Of the phenotypic correlations between adiposity measures and CRP (0.25-0.28), 86-89% were attributed to shared genetic factors and 11-14% to common unique environmental factors in both sexes.
Adiposity is a strong determinant of CRP even in this relatively lean Chinese population. There is notable gender difference for the CRP pattern and the relationship of CRP with adiposity during adolescence. To a large degree, common genetic factors may underlie the observed adiposity-CRP-phenotypic correlations.
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ABSTRACT: In human obesity, the stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. These cells may contribute to low-grade inflammation and to its metabolic complications. Little is known about the effect of weight loss on macrophages and genes involved in macrophage attraction. We examined subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) of 7 lean and 17 morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after bypass surgery. Immunomorphological changes of the number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages were evaluated, along with concomitant changes in expression of SVF-overexpressed genes. The number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages before surgery was higher in obese than in lean subjects (HAM56+/CD68+; 22.6 +/- 4.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.6%, P < 0.001). Typical "crowns" of macrophages were observed around adipocytes. Drastic weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in macrophage number (-11.63 +/- 2.3%, P < 0.001), and remaining macrophages stained positive for the anti-inflammatory protein interleukin 10. Genes involved in macrophage attraction (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, plasminogen activator urokinase receptor [PLAUR], and colony-stimulating factor [CSF]-3) and hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha [HIF-1alpha]), expression of which increases in obesity and decreases after surgery, were predominantly expressed in the SVF. We show that improvement of the inflammatory profile after weight loss is related to a reduced number of macrophages in scWAT. MCP-1, PLAUR, CSF-3, and HIF-1alpha may play roles in the attraction of macrophages in scWAT.Diabetes 08/2005; 54(8):2277-86. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development.The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years.On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys.The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years.Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls.Archives of Disease in Childhood 03/1970; 45(239):13-23. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with profound antidiabetic and antiatherogenic effects that is decreased in obesity. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and the emergence of related disorders, including type 2 diabetes in children, the regulation of adiponectin and its relationship to childhood obesity is of great interest. In this study we aimed to elucidate the impact of gender, pubertal development, and obesity on adiponectin levels in children. We investigated two phenotypically characterized cohorts of 200 normal weight and 135 obese children and adolescents covering a wide range of age (3.4-17.9 yr) and body mass index (-2.1 to +4.8 sd score). In healthy lean boys, adiponectin levels significantly declined in parallel with physical and pubertal development, subsequently leading to significantly reduced adiponectin levels in adolescent boys compared with girls (5.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 7.1 +/- 0.5 mg/liter; P = 0.03). This decline was inversely related to testosterone (r = -0.42; P < 0.0001) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (r = -0.20; P = 0.0068) serum concentrations and may account for the gender differences seen in adults. Using a stepwise forward multiple regression model, pubertal stage was the strongest independent predictor of adiponectin (r(2) = 0.206; P < 0.0001), with additional influences of body mass index sd score and testosterone. Adiponectin levels were decreased in obese children and adolescents compared with lean peers of corresponding age and pubertal stage (5.18 vs. 7.13 mg/liter; P = 0.015). In obese children, adiponectin levels were closely associated with parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, blood pressure, and uric acid, in univariate and multivariate analyses, with the insulin sensitivity index being the strongest independent parameter identified by stepwise forward multiple regression (r(2) = 0.226; P < 0.0001). Hence, there is a strong association of adiponectin serum concentrations with obesity, pubertal development, and metabolic parameters in children indicating epidemiological and pathophysiological relevance already in childhood.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 09/2004; 89(8):4053-61. · 6.43 Impact Factor