Plasma membrane association of p63 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p63RhoGEF) is mediated by palmitoylation and is required for basal activity in cells.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2216, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 08/2011; 286(39):34448-56. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.273342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Activation of G protein-coupled receptors at the cell surface leads to the activation or inhibition of intracellular effector enzymes, which include various Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). RhoGEFs activate small molecular weight GTPases at the plasma membrane (PM). Many of the known G protein-coupled receptor-regulated RhoGEFs are found in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells, and PM recruitment is a critical aspect of their regulation. In contrast, p63RhoGEF, a Gα(q)-regulated RhoGEF, appears to be constitutively localized to the PM. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular basis for the localization of p63RhoGEF and the impact of its subcellular localization on its regulation by Gα(q). Herein, we show that the pleckstrin homology domain of p63RhoGEF is not involved in its PM targeting. Instead, a conserved string of cysteines (Cys-23/25/26) at the N terminus of the enzyme is palmitoylated and required for membrane localization and full basal activity in cells. Conversion of these residues to serine relocates p63RhoGEF from the PM to the cytoplasm, diminishes its basal activity, and eliminates palmitoylation. The activity of palmitoylation-deficient p63RhoGEF can be rescued by targeting to the PM by fusion with tandem phospholipase C-δ1 pleckstrin homology domains or by co-expression with wild-type Gα(q) but not with palmitoylation-deficient Gα(q). Our data suggest that p63RhoGEF is regulated chiefly through allosteric control by Gα(q), as opposed to other known Gα-regulated RhoGEFs, which are instead sequestered in the cytoplasm, perhaps because of their high basal activity.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The heterotrimeric G protein Gαq is a central player in signal transduction, relaying signals from activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to effectors and other proteins to elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+), the actin cytoskeleton, and gene transcription. Gαq functions at the intracellular surface of the plasma membrane, as do its best-characterized targets, phospholipase C-β, p63RhoGEF, and GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2). Recent insights into the structure and function of these signaling complexes reveal several recurring themes, including complex multivalent interactions between Gαq, its protein target, and the membrane, that are likely essential for allosteric control and maximum efficiency in signal transduction. Thus, the plasma membrane is not only a source of substrates but also a key player in the scaffolding of Gαq-dependent signaling pathways.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 11/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The p63RhoGEF and GEFT proteins are encoded by the same gene and both members of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. These proteins can be activated by the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit Gαq. We show that p63RhoGEF is located at the plasma membrane, whereas GEFT is confined to the cytoplasm. Live-cell imaging studies yielded quantitative information on diffusion coefficients, association rates and encounter times of GEFT and p63RhoGEF. Calcium signaling was examined as a measure of the signal transmission, revealing more efficient signaling through the membrane-associated p63RhoGEF. A rapamycin dependent recruitment system was used to dynamically alter the subcellular location and concentration of GEFT, showing efficient signaling through GEFT only upon membrane recruitment. Together, our results show efficient signal transmission through membrane located effectors, and highlight a role for increased concentration rather than increased encounter times due to membrane localization in the Gαq mediated pathways to p63RhoGEF and PLCβ.
    Scientific Reports 07/2013; 3:2284. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which couple to multiple G-proteins and their effectors. These GPCRs are quite efficacious in coupling to the Gα(12/13) family of G-proteins, which stimulate guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for RhoA. Activated RhoA subsequently regulates downstream enzymes that transduce signals which affect the actin cytoskeleton, gene expression, cell proliferation and cell survival. Remarkably many of the enzymes regulated downstream of RhoA either use phospholipids as substrates (e.g. phospholipase D, phospholipase C-epsilon, PTEN, PI3 kinase) or are regulated by phospholipid products (e.g. protein kinase D, Akt). Thus lysophospholipids signal from outside of the cell and control phospholipid signaling processes within the cell that they target. Here we review evidence suggesting an integrative role for RhoA in responding to lysophospholipids upregulated in the pathophysiological environment, and in transducing this signal to cellular responses through effects on phospholipid regulatory or phospholipid regulated enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor