Impaired glucose tolerance in the absence of adenosine A1 receptor signaling.
ABSTRACT The role of adenosine (ADO) in the regulation of glucose homeostasis is not clear. In the current study, we used A1-ADO receptor (A1AR)-deficient mice to investigate the role of ADO/A1AR signaling for glucose homeostasis.
After weaning, A1AR(-/-) and wild-type mice received either a standard diet (12 kcal% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45 kcal% fat). Body weight, fasting plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed in 8-week-old mice and again after 12-20 weeks of subsequent observation. Body composition was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and epididymal fat-pad weights. Glucose metabolism was investigated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. To describe pathophysiological mechanisms, adipokines and Akt phosphorylation were measured.
A1AR(-/-) mice were significantly heavier than wild-type mice because of an increased fat mass. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in A1AR(-/-) mice after weaning and remained higher in adulthood. An intraperitoneal glucose challenge disclosed a significantly slower glucose clearance in A1AR(-/-) mice. An HFD enhanced this phenotype in A1AR(-/-) mice and unmasked a dysfunctional insulin secretory mechanism. Insulin sensitivity was significantly impaired in A1AR(-/-) mice on the standard diet shortly after weaning. Clamp studies detected a significant decrease of net glucose uptake in A1AR(-/-) mice and a reduced glucose uptake in muscle and white adipose tissue. Effects were not triggered by leptin deficiency but involved a decreased Akt phosphorylation.
ADO/A1AR signaling contributes importantly to insulin-controlled glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in C57BL/6 mice and is involved in the metabolic regulation of adipose tissue.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are associated with hormonal imbalances and may result in metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. Therefore, circuits controlling both sleep and metabolism are likely to play a role in these physiopathological conditions. The hypocretin (Hcrt) system is a strong candidate for mediating both sleep and metabolic imbalances because Hcrt neurons are sensitive to metabolic hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, and modulate arousal and goal-orientated behaviours. This review discusses the role of Hcrt neurons as a sensors of energy balance and arousal and proposes new ways of probing local hypothalamic circuits regulating sleep and metabolism with unprecedented cellular specificity and temporal resolution.The Journal of Physiology 01/2009; 587(Pt 1):33-40. · 4.72 Impact Factor
Article: Growth hormone improves body composition, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and liver triacylglycerol in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growth hormone has been used experimentally in two studies to treat individuals with type 2 diabetes, with both reporting beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. However, concerns over potential diabetogenic actions of growth hormone complicate its anticipated use to treat type 2 diabetes. Thus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes could help evaluate the effects of growth hormone for treating this condition. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on a high-fat diet to induce obesity and type 2 diabetes. Starting at 16 weeks of age, mice were treated once daily for 6 weeks with one of four different doses of growth hormone. Body weight, body composition, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance, liver triacylglycerol, tissue weights and blood chemistries were determined. Body composition measurements revealed a dose-dependent decrease in fat and an increase in lean mass. Analysis of fat loss by depot revealed that subcutaneous and mesenteric fat was the most sensitive to growth hormone treatment. In addition, growth hormone treatment resulted in improvement in glucose metabolism, with the highest dose normalising glucose, glucose tolerance and liver triacylglycerol. In contrast, insulin levels were not altered by the treatment, nor did organ weights change. However, fasting plasma leptin and resistin were significantly decreased after growth hormone treatment. Growth hormone therapy improves glucose metabolism in this mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, providing a means to explore the molecular mechanism(s) of this treatment.Diabetologia 06/2009; 52(8):1647-55. · 6.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sensitivity to lipolytic agents is altered in diabetic vs. control animals. Because of its role as a diabetogenic hormone and its ability to elicit lipolysis, GH was studied in isolated fat cells (IFC) from control and streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ-DM) rats. IFCs from the epididymal fat of 150 to 200-g normal and STZ-DM Holtzman rats were prepared by collagenase digestion. Lipolysis was measured by glycerol release after either incubation or perifusion with the following concentrations: epinephrine (EPI), 0.01-0.1 microM; theophylline, 0.01-1.0 mg/ml; adenosine deaminase (ADA), and bovine GH (bGH), 0.01-1.0 microgram/ml. Rats, rendered diabetic by STZ (65 mg/kg), were used on day 3. In a dose-response study comparing glycerol release from control and STZ-DM IFC, IFC were preincubated with 1.0 microgram/ml bGH and then incubated with varying concentrations of EPI or bGH. In STZ-DM, we noted increased lipolytic sensitivity to low concentrations of EPI or bGH. Furthermore, in perifusion, STZ-DM IFC did not require obligatory preincubation with bGH for optimal glycerol release. The addition of ADA increased glycerol release from incubated IFC (STZ-DM and controls). In both systems an enhanced lipolytic response to theophylline was seen in the presence of bGH in control and STZ-DM. It was thus concluded that IFC from normal animals do not respond to GH without preincubation. IFC from STZ-DM rats show a lipolytic response to GH without preincubation. Preincubation with GH increases the lipolytic response of IFC from STZ-DM to all lipolytic agents compared to control responses. In addition, ADA greatly enhanced lipolysis in IFC from STZ-DM compared to that in controls. Together these data demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to both lipolytic stimuli and adenosine suppression of lipolysis in IFC from STZ-DM.Endocrinology 10/1987; 121(3):1056-60. · 4.46 Impact Factor