The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a
month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of
Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia
Balkees Abed Bakhotmah
Background: During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the
hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies
reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify
the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-
reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on
food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in
a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by
them to their families.
Results: A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases
during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5%) reported weight gain after Ramadan. When
asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and
carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal) 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal) 80.9%. One third (31.2%) indicated
that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food
consumption. Two thirds (65.2%) of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain.
Conclusion: Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates
timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest
prevalence rates of diabetes.
Keywords: Fasting, Weight changes, Ramadan, Muslims, Saudi Arabia
At least, one billion of the total Muslims’ population
which amounts to 1.5 billion . on earth refrain from
eating or drinking from sunrise (Sohor)to sunset (Ifttar)
during the holy month of Ramadan . Ramadan is the
ninth lunar month of the Islamic calendar and it will
meet month of August in 2011. The fast periods in
Ramadan varies from country to country and from sea-
son to season with an average length of 12 hours .
In Ramadan all Muslims -except children, elderly, tra-
velers, sick and/or unable- are expected to abstain from
food and drink from early dawn to sunset . Among
disabled individuals with acute or chronic diseases, most
diabetic patients preferred to fast but certain diabetics
can be exempted from fasting .
Although religious fasting is often a time of great
spiritual growth, it can also be a time of great improve-
ment to one’s physical health and perhaps to lose
weight. Most kinds of different religious fasts, and not
only Ramadan fast, have this potential as forms of diet-
ary modification . During Ramadan most Muslims
change their life style , sleep hours , physical activ-
ities , food consumption, meals frequencies and diet-
ary habits for different reasons [2,7-10].
Department of Nutrition & Food Sciences, College of Home Economy, King
Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 53100, Jeddah 21583, Saudi Arabia
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
© 2011 Bakhotmah; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Fasting has been the subject of numerous scientific
investigations [2,7] and . The general opinion is that
fasting has a potential non-pharmacological intervention
for improving health and increasing longevity . There
are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the heart,
lung, liver, kidney, eyes, hematologic profile, endocrine
and neuropsychiatric functions .
However, the majority of health-specific findings
related to Ramadan fasting are mixed and sometimes
contradicting . The likely causes for these heteroge-
neous findings are the differences between studies in
the following: 1) the amount of daily fasting time; 2)
the percentage of subjects who smoke, take oral medi-
cations, and/or receive intravenous fluids; and 3) the
subjects’ typical food choices and eating habits . For
the last reason this study was conducted to find out
the perceptions of a cohort of Saudi females and their
families about their expenditure on foods during
Ramadan, changes in life style, dietary behaviour/
habits, meals frequencies, foods preferences, prepara-
tion of foods and its relation to body weight in view of
the published literature which indicate that body mass
index (BMI) may or may not decrease in response to
Ramadan fasting [11-14]. It is assumed that such varia-
tion may be related to quality and quantity of foods
ingested by Muslims in various countries and sub-cul-
Cultures and sub-cultures differ in their socio-eco-
nomic backgrounds and dietary habits in Ramadan.
Most of studies published were conducted on small
group of young volunteers and aimed to find out the
bio-chemical, anthropometric and physiological changes
under standardized strict conditions and did not
approach it at a public level from all aspects including
the previously mentioned factors. Understanding of the
previous patterns in Ramadan will hopefully lead to bet-
ter health promotion, behavior and nutrition modifica-
tion programs among various communities particularly
those with high prevalence rates of obesity-related type
2 diabetes such as Saudi Arabia.
This is a cross sectional descriptive study which was
performed on a cohort of Saudi females nutrition stu-
dents and their families living in Jeddah city, Western
Saudi Arabia. It was hypothesized that body weight will
increase after Ramadan as a result of changes in life
style by Saudi families which include increase in sugary
and fatty foods consumption, increase in meals fre-
quency and decrease in physical activities. In Ramadan,
most Saudis have 2 main meals (Sohor before dawn and
Ifttar after sunset prayers) and another 3 smaller ones
(at sun-set, after night prayers i.e. Taraweh and at mid-
night before Sohor).
The sample was a convenient sample. The studied
group was primarily a group of 173 final year under-
graduate nutrition female students who were invited to
participate in filling answers to a pre-designed question-
naire. The study was conducted on Ramadan of 2008
(1429H). Students were requested to involve their par-
ents. In case of death of both or one of parents, two
mature members of the family above 20 years of age can
be involved in filling the answers related to whole family
food consumption pattern and to verify the accuracy of
data given. Verbal informed consents were obtained
after the study had been explained to them in native
language. Students were living across Jeddah’s city in
almost all the districts. This wide comprehensive distri-
bution of the studied clusters enhanced the representa-
tion of all the socio-economic groups of Greater
Jeddah’s communities which embraces more than 2.5
million inhabitants. Training and overall supervision of
the interviewers were carried out by the author (BB).
For the purpose of study weight gain was simply
defined as a gain of more than 3 kilograms after com-
pleting a full month of Ramadan fasting by healthy par-
ticipants who were female residents in Jeddah city i.e.
sick and/or travelers were excluded. In addition, non-
Saudi, those who do not weigh themselves regularly or
those who declined to participate were also excluded.
Questionnaire was explained and administered face-to-
face to nutrition students by the author. Students were
also given instructions on how to fill the remaining
parts of questionnaire which needs their families’ assis-
tance. The study was approved by the ethical committee
of King Abdulaziz University Hospital.
A self-administered questionnaire was designed by the
author based on previous experiences and knowledge of
local culture to find out the perceptions of students,
parents or designated members of the family about their
changes in expenditure on foods, life style, meals fre-
quency, dietary habits, food consumption and prefer-
ences, during Ramadan; and their perceptions of its
relation to body weight. The questionnaire was piloted
on a group of students prior to its administration.
The questionnaire consisted of six sections: (1) The
socio-demographic data of the participating families
which included number and gender of families mem-
bers, education level of parents, monthly income (in
Saudi Riyals SAR; USD = 3.75 SAR), place of residency
and housing; (2) Families perspectives about expenditure
during Ramadan which included: Knowledge and inter-
est of the respondent families regarding rationalizing
consumption, reasons behind increased expenditure dur-
ing Ramadan; (3) Preferable timing and frequencies of
meals during Ramadan; (4) Food items usually con-
sumed during breakfast meal (Ifttar), meal’s preparation
and how to deal with remaining foods; (5) Food items
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 2 of 8
usually consumed during Sohor meal in Ramadan and
its preparation; (6) The last section was about self-
reported weight gain and perspectives of studied families
on underlying reasons and its relation to expenditure
Data entry and analysis
Data entry and statistical analyses were done using SPSS
16.0 statistical software package. Quality control was
done at the stages of coding and data entry. Data were
presented using descriptive statistics in the form of fre-
quencies and percentages for qualitative variables, and
means and standard deviations for quantitative variables.
Quantitative continuous data were compared using Stu-
dent t-test in case of comparisons between two groups.
When normal distribution of the data could not be
assumed, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-
Whitney tests were used instead of Student t-test. Quali-
tative variables were compared using chi-square test.
Whenever the expected values in one or more of the
cells in a 2 × 2 tables was less than 5, Fisher exact test
was used instead. Pearson correlation analysis was used
for assessment of the inter-relationships among quanti-
tative variables. Statistical significance was considered at
p-value < 0.05.
A total of 173 students were requested to respond to
pre-designed self administered questionnaire. Table 1
describes the socio-demographic characteristics of the
families enrolled in the study. Majority of families
(83.8%) were constituted of six of more members with a
mean ± SD accounted for 7.5 ± 2.9 members, and it was
also noted that the number of males (mean ± SD 2.9 ±
1.3) was less than females (mean ± SD 3.7 ± 1.7). A
slightly more than one third of the fathers (39.3%) and
less percentage of the mothers (34.1%) had university
qualifications. The results showed that only few minori-
ties of the families (4.8%) had monthly income less than
SAR 3000, while 41.7% had monthly income SAR 10000
+. Half of the respondents (52%) were living in the
North of Jeddah. Regarding the housings, half of the
families (52%) were living in apartments and 40.5% were
living in Villas and the rest (7.5%) were living in public
houses. Almost two thirds (68.2%) of the respondents
owned their houses.
Figure 1 displays distribution of the studied families
according to their knowledge and interest about rationa-
lizing consumption. Almost one third of the families
who indicated that they had interest in rationalizing
consumption (31%) had the perception of not having
adequate knowledge about it, and it was observed that
20% of the families who indicated that they had enough
knowledge about rationalization of consumption were
not interested in adopting it. This gap in the interest
and knowledge about rationalization of consumption
was statistically significant p < 0.05.
Majority of the study group (79.4%) indicated that
their expenditure increases during Ramadan (Table 2).
Table 1 Characteristics of the families included in the
study (n = 173)
Characteristics of the familiesNo.%
Number of family members:
Less than 6 members19 11.0
6+ members 14583.8
Mean ± SD 7.5 ± 2.9
Range 2-19 members
Number of males in the families:
Mean ± SD2.9 ± 1.3
Number of females in the families:
Mean ± SD3.7 ± 1.7
Range 1-10 females
Education level of the father:
Less than university 10359.5
University qualification68 39.3
Education level of the mother:
Less than university111 64.2
University qualification59 34.1
Monthly income (in SAR)
< 30008 4.6
3000- < 600044 25.4
6000 - < 10000 4626.6
Place of residence
North of Jeddah90 52.0
South of Jeddah38 22.0
West of Jeddah7 4.0
East of Jeddah 2615.0
Type of housing:
Ownership of the housing:
Rented 52 30.1
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 3 of 8
This notion applies to both the families who are inter-
ested in rationalizing consumption (79.5%) and those
who are not (80%). Nevertheless, it was observed that
the percentage was significantly lower among families
who indicated that they have adequate knowledge about
rationalizing consumption (74.8%) when compared to
those who did not have adequate knowledge (86.2%) p <
0.05. On the other hand it was observed that neither the
monthly income nor the education level of the parents
had an impact on the mode of expenditure during
Ramadan p > 0.05 (Table 2). Regarding the extra expen-
diture of money during Ramadan, the results showed
that half of those who increased expenditure during
Ramadan (50.8%) are increasing it with a percentage of
50% and the other half 49.2% reported an increasing
expenditure by 25%.
The reasons behind increasing expenditure during
Ramadan were displayed in Figure 2 in descending
order. The social reasons including increased frequency
of family gatherings, invitations and celebrations consti-
tuted the main reason (37%), followed by the psycholo-
gical reasons (30.1%) in the form of the insight desire
for imitating others. The charity and religious factors
came after as reasons for increasing expenditure during
Ramadan (28.9) and (15%) respectively.
Regarding timing and frequencies of meals during
Ramadan, the majority of the respondents (88.8%)
pointed out that they take a main meal at Sohor, and
slightly more than two thirds (68.8%) indicated that they
take a meal immediately after sunset i.e. Maghreb prayer
In Figure 4 the foods commonly consumed at Ifttar
are displayed. Dates are on the top of list (97.7%) at
breakfast meal (Ifttar) during Ramadan, followed by
meat soups (95.4%) and Sambosa or Samosa which is
pastry filled with meat or cheese (93.6%). Also, it was
noted that the majority of the respondents (82.1%) are
consuming pastries and coffee (75.7%). Almost two
thirds of the respondents (68.8%) indicated that they
consume salads, dairy products (65.9%) and bread
(61.8%). On the other hand, it was observed that the
least food items to be consumed during Ramadan are
the fisheries, where it was found that only 8.1% of the
respondents indicated that they eat shrimps regularly
and 7.5% marked that they consume fish. Soft drinks
were used by very few minorities of the families (2.3%),
Interested Not interested
Chi sq=19.606 p=000
Have knowledge about rationalizing consumtiopn
Figure 1 Knowledge and interest of the respondent families
regarding rationalizing consumption.
Table 2 Expenditure during Ramadan according to characteristics of the study group
CharacteristicsIncreased Not increasedTotal p*
Family interested in rationalizing consumptionYes 116(79.5%) 30(20.5%)146(100%)0.595
No 20(80.0%) 5(20.0%) 25(100%)
Family knowledgeable about rationalizing consumption Yes77(74.8%) 26(25.2%)103(100%)0.047
< 3000 8(100.0%)– 8(100%)
Monthly income in SAR3000- < 600033(75.0%)11(25.0%)44(100%)
6000- < 1000 38(82.6%)8(17.4%)46(100%) 0.391
10000+ 56(77.8%) 16(22.2%)72(100%)
Education level of the father< university83(80.6%) 20(19.4%)103(100%) 0.595
Education level of the mother < university88(79.3%) 23(20.7%)111(100%) 0.561
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 4 of 8
Table 3 illustrates the breakfast meal preparation, con-
sumption and the ways of dealing with the remnants of
food stuffs. Majority of families (75.1%) were rarely buy-
ing readymade foods for breakfast and only (1.8%) always
buy it from outside. Meanwhile, it was found that the
father is the chief person (56.1%) responsible for buying
the food ingredients, and the mother is the main person
shouldering the responsibility of preparing the breakfast
meal (74.6%), and 12.1% of the families were depending
on the maids for preparing it. Regarding the breakfast
meals’ remnants, it was realized that in general 84.4% of
the families indicated that they usually have remnants of
the breakfast meals. One third of the families indicated
that always there are remnants of the breakfast meals in
addition to 51.5% who indicated that it is sometimes
occurring. Moreover, it was realized that the majority of
these remnants (75.2%) are stored for being used later,
and 22.5% are using it for charity purposes. Only few
minorities (2.3%) addressed that they are discarding the
remnants of breakfast meals (Table 3).
Rice headed the food items usually consumed in
Sohor during Ramadan (80.9%) followed by bread
(70.5%) and salads (69.4%), (Figure 5). At the same time,
it was remarked that almost two thirds of the families
are taking meat and cooked vegetables (61.8%) in Sohor.
In addition, half of the families (49.7%) are consuming
dairy products and slightly less than half of them are
eating fresh vegetables. On the other side, it was realized
that the least food items consumed by the families in
Sohor were the soft drinks (19.7%) and sweets (22.5%).
In contrast to breakfast meal where the respondents
prepare it at home, (59%) of the families are buying pre-
pared food for the Sohor meal, and more than one third
(38.7%) are doing so sometimes. Only few minorities
(2.3%) indicated that they are always buying readymade
food for Sohor meals.
Almost two thirds of the respondents (59.5%) self-
reported weight gain among some or all of the family
members after Ramadan, and when asked about their
perspective explanation for the weight gain, 40% attribu-
ted the weight gain to the types and quality of foods
usually consumed during Ramadan being rich in fat and
sweets, and almost one third (31.2%) articulated that the
reason for weight gain during Ramadan is the lack of
physical exercise (Table 4).
Social reasons Psychological
Figure 2 Reasons behind increasing expenditure during
Figure 3 Preferable time for taking meals during Ramadan.
0.00% 20.00%40.00% 60.00%80.00% 100.00% 120.00%
Figure 4 Food items usually consumed during breakfast meal
(Ifttar) of Ramadan.
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 5 of 8
It was obvious that two thirds (65.2%) of those who
indicated that there is increased expenditure during
Ramadan realized weight gain among some or all of
family members after Ramadan. The reverse was
observed for those who indicated that they did not
increase expenditure during Ramadan as they expressed
no weight gain realized among their family members
(62.9%) and this difference was statistically significant p
Ramadan fasting is a religious obligation. Therefore no
randomized controlled trial was done to ascertain its
benefits, and data available in literature relies on before-
after studies(8). Most of studies published are on young
individuals, conducted in heterogeneous communities of
diverse cultural back grounds and diverse dietary habits
[2,8-13]. No large-scale studies have yet been done in
Middle East and North African MENA countries includ-
ing Saudi Arabia . Those countries are witnessing an
“epidemic” of type 2 diabetes mellitus which is strongly
related to obesity . For those countries, Ramadan
fasting is theoretically a golden opportunity to adopt
healthy life style and dietary habits which will lead to
weight reduction, better control of diabetes and its com-
plications and perhaps other biochemical changes asso-
ciated with metabolic syndrome [17-19].
This pilot community-based study aimed to look at
weight changes and its relation to different variables
related to food consumption, dietary habits and behavior
as reported by a representative group of Saudi families
living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The sample of studied
families was distributed across Jeddah and represented
all of the socio-economic groups of Jeddah’s community
Most of Muslims’ families believe that Ramadan is a
month of “giving” and generosity. Therefore it is not
surprising that there is a gap between knowledge and
interest in rationalizing consumption and expenditure
Figure 1. This gap should be bridged by more behavior/
nutrition education programs especially designed to our
local community about the concept mentioned above.
The nutrition educationalists and perhaps social/reli-
gious leaders should be involved in filling the gap. This
was supported by the finding in Table 2 which showed
that knowledge has a significant impact on rationalizing
Table 3 Breakfast meal preparation and consumption
Buying prepared food from outside
The person who is buying food ingredients
Other family member43 24.9
The person who is preparing breakfast meals
Other family members23 13.3
Are there remnants of the breakfast meals?
Sometimes 89 51.5
Dealing with remnants of the breakfast meals
Charity for poor 39 22.5
Stored for being used later13075.2
0% 10%20% 30% 40% 50%60%70%80%90%
Figure 5 Food items usually consumed during Sohor meal in
Table 4 Self-reported weight gain during Ramadan
Remarked weight gain in some or all of the family members
Yes 103 59.5
Reasons of weight gain
Consumption of extra food25 14.5
Type of food (fatty and sweets)7040.5
Lack of physical exercise 5431.2
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 6 of 8
expenditures. Similar observation of increase food con-
sumption in Ramadan was noticed in Algerian study 
and Moroccans youngsters living in Spain .
Social reasons headed the lists of reasons behind
increasing expenditure during Ramadan followed by psy-
chological reasons, charity and finally religion. This indi-
cates the importance of changing the above behaviors to
healthy behaviors which include education of local com-
munity that social gathering should not be always
accompanied by more food intake.
Unlike other Muslims in MENA countries [2,12,19],
the studied Saudi families increased the frequency of
meals from 3 outside Ramadan to 5 in Ramadan Figure
3. Unfortunately, the “Sohor” meal is one on the top.
This particular meal is always followed by late sleeping
for at least 5 hours. In Tunisia, the main meal is break-
fast and not “Sohor” .
As noticed by other authors in previous studies in var-
ious Muslim’s countries most Muslims usually increase
food consumption particularly proteins and fat but not
carbohydrates [4,9,20] as observed in Saudis. Almost all
of Saudis have dates at breakfast time (97.7%), followed
by soup and Sambosa (93.6%). The dates are too sugary
and the Sambosa is fatty as it is usually fried and filled
with minced meat. Soup is usually prepared using meat
and chicken, Figure 4.
Breakfast meal is rarely bought from outside (1.7%).
This is a healthy behavior and should be supported
assuming that the family will change the bad cooking
habit like frying and avoid the fatty and sweaty items. A
similar trend was reported by Guerrero Morilla et al.
. In Table 3, 32.9% of families reported that there is
always remaining food. This indicates again the need for
more efforts on educating the local community to avoid
over spending in Ramadan.
In contrast to breakfast meal, Sohor meal which is the
main meal contains rice as a main food almost 80% of
responding families. It is commonly cooked using meat.
The most traditional dish in Saudi Arabia is “Kabsah”
which is rice plus meat. It is of high calories and fat
contents. “Kabsah” is commonly bought from fast-foods
traditional shops and not cooked at home. In Ramadan
less vegetable and fruits were consumed in both break-
fast and “Sohor” meals.
These practices and dietary habits of Saudis are differ-
ent from other MENA countries such as Tunisia ,
Algeria , Egypt , Jordan , Turkey  and
Iran . This variation in food expenditure, food con-
sumption, increase meals frequency, the bad food pre-
ferences may explain the contradicting finding in this
study compared to the previously mentioned studies in
which weight loss and not weight gain was reported. It
may not be a surprise therefore that 59.5% of the sample
reported weight gain in Ramadan rather than no change
or weight loss. Unfortunately, only half of them corre-
lated that weight gain to the consumption of extra-food
and the choice of fatty and sugary foods. This supports
the previous findings of studies conducted on Saudis
two decades ago which indicated that Saudi Muslims
increase their energy intake compared to Indians Mus-
lims [2,7] and .
In view of the findings of this study, it is believed
that weight gain and not weight loss is the problem in
Saudi Arabia which is a developing Muslim country
with high prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus which
amounted to 23.7% as reported by Al Nozha et al. 
mainly Type II which is strongly related to obesity. On
the long term the current dietary habits are not
healthy to the Saudi community particularly diabetics
and may contribute to higher prevalence rates of dia-
betes-related complications on long term. Theoreti-
cally, Ramadan fast model is a good model for
behavior modification  and health promotion. It is
a good opportunity for not only maintaining weight
but also to reduce it in obese and overweight indivi-
duals [4,13,18,19]. In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia these goals
are not met for many reasons described above. The
gap between knowledge and practice should be filled
by more nutrition education about reducing the num-
bers of meals, improving the dietary habits, improving
the quality and quantity of food intake, and increase
instead of current decline in physical activity. Educa-
tion awareness campaigns may not succeed unless it is
accompanied by policies which enforce the media to
reduce the amount of foods advertisement about foods.
Social researchers should work on changing the con-
cept of many Muslims that Ramadan is a month of
having more foods at night to compensate for the fast-
ing periods. Diet in Ramadan should not differ very
much from a healthy normal diet which maintains nor-
mal weight and if one is over-weight, Ramadan is a
good time to shed some pounds. More research is
needed in Saudi Arabia and adjacent Gulf Countries
GCC to study the observation of changing the fasting
month of Ramadan from a month of fasting to an
“over-eating” ‘s month.
In contradiction to what is logically expected after a
month of fasting and to what was reported in literature,
it is found in this study that weight gain and not weight
loss was likely to happen after Ramadan by Saudis living
in Jeddah. The findings in this small-scale cross-sec-
tional study indicates the need for larger scales studies
at national levels not only in Saudi Arabia but also in
adjacent gulf countries and perhaps MENA countries of
similar cultural and social back grounds. There is need
for educational programs which focus on healthier life-
Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
Page 7 of 8
style in Ramadan and dietary modification of a popula-
tion which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of
Ramadan: The holy month of fasting; Ifttar: the breakfast meal at the sunset;
Sohor: the dawn meal at late night; MENA: Middle East and North African
countries; Maghreb prayer: sunset prayer; Taraweh prayer: mid-night prayer.
The author would like to thank Sheikh “ Mohammad Hussein Al-amoudi
Chair for Diabetic Foot Research” for partial funding of this study as well as
its Chairman Professor Hasan A. Alzahrani for kind assistance in reviewing
and editing of this manuscript. The author would also like to thank Dr Adel
Ibrahim for his kind assistance in statistical analysis of results; thanks extend
to all students who participated in recruiting their families and in collection
The author has contributed to design, conduct and preparation of the final
version of this manuscript.
The author declares that they have no competing interests.
Received: 26 May 2011 Accepted: 10 August 2011
Published: 10 August 2011
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Cite this article as: Bakhotmah: The puzzle of self-reported weight gain
in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in
Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:84.
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Bakhotmah Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:84
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