Risk of malignant lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a Dutch nationwide study.
ABSTRACT Immune suppressant medications such as thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents are important for maintaining disease control in most patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); however, their use has been associated with the development of malignant lymphoma. The purpose of this Dutch nationwide study was to estimate the relative risk of malignant lymphoma in IBD patients.
IBD patients who developed a lymphoma between 1997 and 2004 were identified using the Dutch National Database of PALGA. Data from confirmed cases were collected from individual hospitals, including data on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The age-adjusted 8-year incidence of malignant lymphoma in the Netherlands was retrieved from the Central Bureau of Statistics.
Forty-two hospitals were visited and 285 matches evaluated in the total cohort of 17,834 IBD patients. Forty-four lymphomas were observed, resulting in a relative risk of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-1.68). Only 19 of 44 patients (43%) were exposed to azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine (AZA/6-MP). Remarkably, 92% of patients (11/12) with EBV-positive lymphoma used AZA/6-MP, in contrast to only 19% patients (4/21) with EBV-negative lymphoma, suggesting a strong relation between EBV-positive lymphoma and thiopurine use.
This nationwide study does not suggest a significant overall increased risk for lymphoma in IBD patients. A distinct correlation between EBV-positive lymphoma and AZA/6-MP use was observed.
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ABSTRACT: This is an updated guideline prepared for the British Association of Dermatologists’ (BAD) Clinical Standards Unit, made up of the Therapy & Guidelines (T&G) Subcommittee and the Audit & Clinical Standards Subcommittee (A&CS). Members of the Clinical Standards Unit are: M.J. Tidman (Chairman T&G), L.C. Fuller (Chairman A&CS), J. McLelland, J. Lear, J. Hughes, A.J. McDonagh, S. Punjabi, N. Morar, D.A. Buckley, I. Nasr, P. Maycock (British National Formulary), S. Amin (British National Formulary), S.E. Hulley (British Dermatological Nursing Group), S.E. Haveron (BAD Scientific Administrator), M.F. Mohd Mustapa (BAD Clinical Standards Manager).British Journal of Dermatology 10/2011; 165(4):711-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10575.x · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The thiopurine drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine, are efficacious in the arsenal of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. Previous reports indicate that 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) levels correlate with therapeutic efficacy, whereas high 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) levels are associated with hepatotoxicity and myelotoxicity. Due to their complex metabolism, there is wide individual variation in patient response therein, both in achieving therapeutic drug levels as well as in developing adverse reactions. Several strategies to optimize 6-TGN while minimizing 6-MMP levels have been adopted to administer the thiopurine class of drugs to patients who otherwise would not tolerate these drugs due to side-effects. In this report, we will review different approaches to administer the thiopurine medications, including the administration of 6-mercaptopurine in those unsuccessfully treated with azathioprine; co-administration of thiopurine with allopurinol; co-administration of thiopurine with anti-tumor necrosis factor α; 6-TGN administration; desensitization trials; and split dosing of 6-MP.World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2011; 17(37):4166-73. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v17.i37.4166 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The combined role of immunomodulators (IMM) and clinical characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in determining the cancer risk is undefined. The aim was to assess whether clinical characteristics of IBD are independent risk factors for cancer, when considering thiopurines and anti-TNFs use. In a single-center cohort study, clinical characteristics of IBD patients with IBD duration ≥1 year and ≥2 visits from 2000 to 2009 were considered. Tests for crude rates and survival analysis methods were used to assess differences of incidence of cancer between groups. The methods were adjusted for the time interval between diagnosis and immunomodulatory treatments. IBD population included 1222 patients :615 Crohn's disease (CD), 607 ulcerative colitis (UC). Cancer was diagnosed in 51 patients (34 CD,17 UC), with an incidence rate of 4.3/1000 pt/year. The incidence rate of cancer was comparable between CD and UC (4.6/1000 pt/year vs 2.9/1000 pt/year ;p=n.s.). Cancer most frequently involved the breast, the GI tract, the skin. Lymphoma was diagnosed in CD (1HL, 1NHL,0 HSTCL). Risk factors for cancer included older age at diagnosis of IBD (CD: HR 1.25;95%CI 1.08-1.45; UC:HR 1.33;95%CI 1.15-1.55 for an increase by 5 years; p=0.0023; p=0.0002), fistulizing pattern in CD (HR 2.55; 95%CI 1.11-5.86,p=0.0275), pancolitis in UC (HR 2.79;95%CI 1.05-7.40 p=0.0396 vs distal). IMM and anti-TNFs did not increase the cancer risk in CD, neither IMM in UC (anti-TNFs risk in UC not feasible as no cases observed). Fistulizing pattern in CD, pancolitis in UC and older age at diagnosis of IBD are independent risk factors for cancer.Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 12/2011; 6(5):578-87. DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2011.11.005 · 3.56 Impact Factor