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Serological Studies Confirm the Novel Astrovirus HMOAstV-C as a Highly Prevalent Human Infectious Agent

Neurobiology and Pain Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Sensory Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2011; 6(8):e22576. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Molecular identification of a microbe is the first step in determining its prevalence of infection and pathogenic potential. Detection of specific adaptive immune responses can provide insights into whether a microbe is a human infectious agent and its epidemiology. Here we characterized human anti-IgG antibody responses by luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) against two protein fragments derived from the capsid protein of the novel HMOAstV-C astrovirus. While antibodies to the N-terminal fragment were not informative, the C-terminal capsid fragment of HMOAstV-C showed a high frequency of immunoreactivity with serum from healthy blood donors. In contrast, a similar C-terminal capsid fragment from the related HMOAstV-A astrovirus failed to show immunoreactivity. Detailed analysis of adult serum from the United Sates using a standardized threshold demonstrated HMOAstV-C seropositivity in approximately 65% of the samples. Evaluation of serum samples from different pediatric age groups revealed that the prevalence of antibodies in 6-12 month, 1-2 year, 2-5 year and 5-10 year olds was 20%, 23%, 32% and 36%, respectively, indicating rising seroprevalence with age. Additionally, 50% (11/22) of the 0-6 month old children showed anti-HMOAstV-C antibody responses, likely reflecting maternal antibodies. Together these results document human humoral responses to HMOAstV-C and validate LIPS as a facile and effective approach for identifying humoral responses to novel infectious agents.

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Available from: Michael Iadarola, Aug 31, 2015
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    • "HAstV-VA1 was reported as the causative agent for a diarrhea outbreak in a child care center in Virginia [5]. Serological studies showed HAstV-HMO-C to be a highly prevalent human infection [7] with approximately 65% of adult in the US showing antibody reactivity. Recently HAstV-VA4 was discovered in diarrhea from Nepalese children with a prevalence of 1% (2/196) [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A significant fraction of cases of diarrhea, a leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide, remain unexplained. Objectives To identify viruses in unexplained cases of diarrhea using an unbiased metagenomics approach. Study design Viral nucleic acids were enriched from the feces from 48 cases of unexplained diarrhea from Burkina Faso, sequenced, and compared against all known viral genomes. Results The full genome of a highly divergent astrovirus was sequenced in a sample co-infected with parechovirus 1. RT-PCR identified a single astrovirus infection in these 48 patients indicating a low prevalence. Human astrovirus-BF34 was most closely related to mamastrovirus species 8 and 9 also found in human with which it shared 62%, 74%, and 57% amino acid identities over its protease, RNA dependent RNA polymerase and capsid proteins, respectively. Conclusions Burkina Faso astrovirus is proposed as prototype for a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus, here tentatively called Mamastrovirus 20, representing the fifth human astrovirus species.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2014; 60(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.03.024 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Many of the LIPS antigens used for the infectious agents described above have been previously reported along with their diagnostic performance including the gG-1 of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) [19], gG-2 of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) [19], BFRF3 (p18), BZLF2, BHRF1, and BMRF1 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) [20], pp165 and pp65 of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) [21], p101 of Human herpes virus-6B (HHV-6) [22] , HA2 of influenza [20], capsid of HMO-astrovirus [23] and the MSG-14 of Pneumocystis jirovecii [24]. New antigen constructs for additional infectious agent targets were chosen based on their known antigenicity and were generated essentially as described using the pREN2 and pREN3S vector [24]. "
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    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81635. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081635 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "HAstV-PS was the only virus detected, and astrocyte infection was confirmed by anticapsid antibody staining (6). Serologic evidence of exposure to the closely related AstV-HMO-C was found in 36% of 5–10-year-old children in the United States, which reflects a common childhood infection and indicates that the encephalitis in this child was a likely consequence of his immunodeficiency (9). In an outbreak of so-called “neurological shaking disease” in mink, an astrovirus (Mink AstV-SMS) was detected in the brain tissues of multiple naturally and experimentally infected animals showing neurologic signs, including shaking and ataxia (5). "
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    Emerging Infectious Diseases 09/2013; 19(9):1385-92. DOI:10.3201/eid1909.130682 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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