Relationship between body mass index and mortality among Europeans

Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2011; 66(2):156-65. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.145
Source: PubMed


To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality from various causes.
Data of 72,947 European men and 62,798 women aged 24-99 years at baseline were collaboratively analyzed. Both absolute and relative mortality risks were estimated within each BMI categories. The hazard ratio was estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, cohort and smoking status.
Over a median follow-up of 16.8 years, 29,071 participants died, 13,502 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 8748 from cancers of all types. All-cause and cancer mortality showed a U-shaped relationship: decreased first, leveled off, and then increased with increasing BMI with the lowest mortality risk approximately between 23.0 and 28.0 kg/m(2) of BMI in men and 21.0 and 28.0 kg/m(2) in women. The U-shaped relationship held for all-cause mortality but disappeared for cancer mortality among non-smokers. The CVD mortality was constant until a BMI of approximately 28.0 kg/m(2) and then increased gradually in both men and women, which was independent of age, cohort and smoking status.
A U-shaped relationship of BMI with all-cause mortality but a graded relationship with CVD mortality at BMI >28.0 kg/m(2) was detected. The relationship between cancer mortality and BMI largely depended on smoking status, and need to be further investigated with site-specific cancers.

Download full-text


Available from: Jaakko Tuomilehto, Oct 03, 2015
42 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is a hallmark of obesity, triggering the development of associated pathologies, particularly type 2 diabetes. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs reduce cardiovascular events and exert well-established antiinflammatory effects, but their effects on human adipose tissue inflammation are unknown. We investigated whether n-3 PUFAs reduce adipose tissue inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients. We treated 55 severely obese nondiabetic patients, scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery, with 3.36 g long-chain n-3 PUFAs/d (EPA, DHA) or an equivalent amount of butterfat as control, for 8 wk, in a randomized open-label controlled clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was inflammatory gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples (subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue), collected during surgery after the intervention. Secondary efficacy variables were adipose tissue production of antiinflammatory n-3 PUFA-derived eicosanoids, plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, metabolic control, and the effect of the Pro12Ala PPARG polymorphism on the treatment response. Treatment with n-3 PUFAs, which was well tolerated, decreased the gene expression of most analyzed inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.05) and increased production of antiinflammatory eicosanoids in visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.05). In comparison with control subjects who received butterfat, circulating interleukin-6 and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly in the n-3 PUFA group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The Pro12Ala polymorphism affected the serum cholesterol response to n-3 PUFA treatment. Treatment with long-chain n-3 PUFAs favorably modulated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients and improved lipid metabolism. These effects may be beneficial in the long-term treatment of obesity. This trial was registered at as NCT00760760.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2012; 96(5):1137-49. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.037432 · 6.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. Subjects/methods: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (BF%) from 55 published studies of healthy populations aged 6-80 years. In addition, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body composition is documented in the context of BIA as a good alternative to closely differentiate which composition of the body better relates to the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)and all-cause mortality. Results and conclusions: BIA-estimated percentage of BF varies greatly with population and age. BIA-estimated BF% is directly and closely related to various health outcomes such as CVDs, which is in contrast to BMI where both high and low BMIs are associated with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. Studies, among others using BIA, suggest that low BMI may reflect low muscle and high BMI fat mass (FM). BIA-derived lean and FM is directly associated with morbidity and mortality. To the contrary, BMI is rather of limited use for measuring BF% in epidemiological studies.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2013; 67:S79-S85. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2012.168 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity affects the vitamin D status in humans. Vitamin D and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) provide benefit for the prevention of fractures and cardiovascular events, respectively, and both are involved in controlling inflammatory and immune responses. However, published epidemiological data suggest a potential interference of n-3 PUFA supplementation with vitamin D status. Therefore, we aimed to investigate in a randomized controlled clinical trial whether treatment with long chain n-3 PUFA affects vitamin D status in severely obese patients and potential interrelations of vitamin D and PUFA treatment with inflammatory parameters. Fifty-four severely obese (BMI≥40 kg/m2) non-diabetic patients were treated for eight weeks with either 3.36 g/d EPA and DHA or the same amount of butter fat as control. Changes in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, plasma fatty acid profiles and circulating inflammatory marker concentrations from baseline to end of treatment were assessed. At baseline 43/54 patients were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). Treatment with n-3 PUFA did not affect vitamin D status (P = 0.91). Serum 25(OH)D concentration correlated negatively with both IL-6 (P = 0.02) and hsCRP serum concentration (P = 0.03) at baseline. Strikingly, the negative correlations of 25(OH)D with IL-6 and hsCRP were lost after n-3 PUFA treatment. In conclusion, vitamin D status of severely obese patients remained unaffected by n-3 PUFA treatment. However, abrogation of the inverse association of 25(OH)D concentration with inflammatory markers indicated that n-3 PUFA treatment could compensate for some detrimental consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Trial Registration NCT00760760
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54634. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054634 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Show more