Gelsolin and non-muscle myosin IIA interact to mediate calcium-regulated collagen phagocytosis.
ABSTRACT The formation of adhesion complexes is the rate-limiting step for collagen phagocytosis by fibroblasts, but the role of Ca(2+) and the potential interactions of actin-binding proteins in regulating collagen phagocytosis are not well defined. We found that the binding of collagen beads to fibroblasts was temporally and spatially associated with actin assembly at nascent phagosomes, which was absent in gelsolin null cells. Analysis of tryptic digests isolated from gelsolin immunoprecipitates indicated that non-muscle (NM) myosin IIA may bind to gelsolin. Immunostaining and immunoprecipitation showed that gelsolin and NM myosin IIA associated at collagen adhesion sites. Gelsolin and NM myosin IIA were both required for collagen binding and internalization. Collagen binding to cells initiated a prolonged increase of [Ca(2+)](i), which was absent in cells null for gelsolin or NM myosin IIA. Collagen bead-induced increases of [Ca(2+)](i) were associated with phosphorylation of the myosin light chain, which was dependent on gelsolin. NM myosin IIA filament assembly, which was dependent on myosin light chain phosphorylation and increased [Ca(2+)](i), also required gelsolin. Ionomycin-induced increases of [Ca(2+)](i) overcame the block of myosin filament assembly in gelsolin null cells. We conclude that gelsolin and NM myosin IIA interact at collagen adhesion sites to enable NM myosin IIA filament assembly and localized, Ca(2+)-dependent remodeling of actin at the nascent phagosome and that these steps are required for collagen phagocytosis.
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ABSTRACT: We examined how collagen substrate topography, [Ca(2+)](i) and the association of gelsolin with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at collagen adhesions are regulated to enable collagen phagocytosis. Fibroblasts plated on planar, collagen-coated substrates showed minimal increase of [Ca(2+)](i), minimal colocalization of gelsolin and NMMIIA in focal adhesions and minimal intracellular collagen degradation. In fibroblasts plated on collagen-coated latex beads there were large increases of [Ca(2+)](i), time- and Ca(2+)-dependent enrichment of NMMIIA and gelsolin at collagen adhesions, and abundant intracellular collagen degradation. NMMIIA knockdown retarded gelsolin recruitment to adhesions and blocked collagen phagocytosis. Gelsolin exhibited tight, Ca(2+)-dependent binding to full-length NMMIIA. Gelsolin domains G4-G6 selectively required Ca(2+) to interact with NMMIIA, which was restricted to residues 1339-1899 of NMMIIA. We conclude that cell adhesion to collagen presented on beads activates Ca(2+) entry and promotes the formation of phagosomes enriched with NMMIIA and gelsolin. The Ca(2+) -dependent interaction of gelsolin and NMMIIA in turn enables actin remodeling and enhances collagen degradation by phagocytosis.Molecular biology of the cell 01/2013; DOI:10.1091/mbc.E12-10-0754 · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Podosomes are actin-rich adhesion and invasion structures. Especially in macrophages, podosomes exist in two subpopulations, large precursors at the cell periphery and smaller podosomes (successors) in the cell interior. To date, the mechanisms that differentially regulate these subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we show that the membrane-associated protein supervillin localizes preferentially to successor podosomes and becomes enriched at precursors immediately before their dissolution. Consistently, podosome numbers are inversely correlated with supervillin protein levels. Using deletion constructs, we find that the myosin II regulatory N-terminus of supervillin [SV(1-174)] is crucial for these effects. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) localizes at supervillin-positive podosomes, and time-lapse analyses show that enrichment of GFP-supervillin at podosomes coincides with their coupling to contractile myosin-IIA-positive cables. We also show that supervillin binds only to activated myosin IIA, and a dysregulated N-terminal construct [SV(1-830)] enhances pMLC levels at podosomes. Thus, preferential recruitment of supervillin to podosome subpopulations might both require and induce actomyosin contractility. Using siRNA and pharmacological inhibition, we demonstrate that supervillin and myosin IIA cooperate to regulate podosome lifetime, podosomal matrix degradation and cell polarization. In sum, we show here that podosome subpopulations differ in their molecular composition and identify supervillin, in cooperation with myosin IIA, as a crucial factor in the regulation of podosome turnover and function.Journal of Cell Science 02/2012; 125(Pt 9):2300-14. DOI:10.1242/jcs.100032 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis is the mechanism whereby cells engulf large particles. This process has long been recognized as a critical component of the innate immune response, which constitutes the organism's defense against microorganisms. In addition, phagocytic internalization of apoptotic cells or cell fragments plays important roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Phagocytosis requires target interactions with receptors on the plasma membrane of the phagocytic cell. Integrins have been identified as important mediators of particle clearance, in addition to their well-established roles in cell adhesion, migration and mechanotransduction. Indeed, these ubiquitously expressed proteins impart phagocytic capacity to epithelial, endothelial and mesenchymal cell types. The importance of integrins in particle internalization is emphasized by the ability of microbial and viral pathogens to exploit their signaling pathways to invade host cells, and by the wide variety of disorders that arise from abnormalities in integrin-dependent phagocytic uptake.International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2013; 302:321-54. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-407699-0.00006-6 · 4.52 Impact Factor