Procedures for controlling the size, structure and optical properties of CdS quantum dots during synthesis in aqueous solution.
ABSTRACT We report an easy approach for the synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots (CdS QDs) with high luminescence and temporal stability through the reaction of Cd(2+) and S(2-) in the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) as a capping reagent in aqueous medium, under normal pressure and room temperature. The influence of several experimental variables, including temperature, pH, the Cd/S ratio and the Cd/MAA ratio, on the optical properties of the QDs obtained was studied systematically. The experimental results indicate that these variables play an important role in determining the size and state of the surface of the nanoparticles, and hence their luminescent properties and temporal stability. The general aspects of nanocrystal nucleation and growth in the synthesis of nanocrystals were studied. The best conditions for the synthesis of nanoparticles of high quality are also reported. The CdS nanocrystals obtained exhibited a narrow PL band, with reproducible room-temperature quantum yields.
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ABSTRACT: Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) have the potential to revolutionize biological imaging, but their use has been limited by difficulties in obtaining nanocrystals that are biocompatible. To address this problem, we encapsulated individual nanocrystals in phospholipid block-copolymer micelles and demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo imaging. When conjugated to DNA, the nanocrystal-micelles acted as in vitro fluorescent probes to hybridize to specific complementary sequences. Moreover, when injected into Xenopus embryos, the nanocrystal-micelles were stable, nontoxic (<5 x 10(9) nanocrystals per cell), cell autonomous, and slow to photobleach. Nanocrystal fluorescence could be followed to the tadpole stage, allowing lineage-tracing experiments in embryogenesis.Science 12/2002; 298(5599):1759-62. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the most promising emerging fluorescent labels for cellular imaging. However, it is unclear whether QDs, which are nanoparticles rather than small molecules, can specifically and effectively label molecular targets at a subcellular level. Here we have used QDs linked to immunoglobulin G (IgG) and streptavidin to label the breast cancer marker Her2 on the surface of fixed and live cancer cells, to stain actin and microtubule fibers in the cytoplasm, and to detect nuclear antigens inside the nucleus. All labeling signals are specific for the intended targets and are brighter and considerably more photostable than comparable organic dyes. Using QDs with different emission spectra conjugated to IgG and streptavidin, we simultaneously detected two cellular targets with one excitation wavelength. The results indicate that QD-based probes can be very effective in cellular imaging and offer substantial advantages over organic dyes in multiplex target detection.Nature Biotechnology 02/2003; 21(1):41-6. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs), tiny light-emitting particles on the nanometer scale, are emerging as a new class of fluorescent probe for in vivo biomolecular and cellular imaging. In comparison with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs have unique optical and electronic properties: size-tunable light emission, improved signal brightness, resistance against photobleaching, and simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescence colors. Recent advances have led to the development of multifunctional nanoparticle probes that are very bright and stable under complex in vivo conditions. A new structural design involves encapsulating luminescent QDs with amphiphilic block copolymers and linking the polymer coating to tumor-targeting ligands and drug delivery functionalities. Polymer-encapsulated QDs are essentially nontoxic to cells and animals, but their long-term in vivo toxicity and degradation need more careful study. Bioconjugated QDs have raised new possibilities for ultrasensitive and multiplexed imaging of molecular targets in living cells, animal models and possibly in humans.Current Opinion in Biotechnology 03/2005; 16(1):63-72. · 7.86 Impact Factor