The changing therapeutic landscape of castration-resistant prostate cancer
ABSTRACT Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has a poor prognosis and remains a significant therapeutic challenge. Before 2010, only docetaxel-based chemotherapy improved survival in patients with CRPC compared with mitoxantrone. Our improved understanding of the underlying biology of CRPC has heralded a new era in molecular anticancer drug development, with a myriad of novel anticancer drugs for CRPC entering the clinic. These include the novel taxane cabazitaxel, the vaccine sipuleucel-T, the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone, the novel androgen-receptor antagonist MDV-3100 and the radioisotope alpharadin. With these developments, the management of patients with CRPC is changing. In this Review, we discuss these promising therapies along with other novel agents that are demonstrating early signs of activity in CRPC. We propose a treatment pathway for patients with CRPC and consider strategies to optimize the use of these agents, including the incorporation of predictive and intermediate end point biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells.
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ABSTRACT: Novel therapeutic options beyond hormone ablation and chemotherapy are urgently needed for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an attractive option as advanced prostate cancers show a highly altered phosphotyrosine proteome. However, despite favorable initial clinical results, the combination of the TKI dasatinib with docetaxel did not result in improved patient survival for reasons that are not known in detail.Urologic Oncology 07/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.06.001 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Novel therapeutic options beyond hormone ablation and chemotherapy are urgently needed for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an attractive option as advanced prostate cancers show a highly altered phosphotyrosine proteome. However, despite favorable initial clinical results, the combination of the TKI dasatinib with docetaxel did not result in improved patient survival for reasons that are not known in detail. Methods The National Cancer Institute–Approved Oncology Drug Set II was used in a phenotypic drug screen to identify novel compounds with antineoplastic activity in prostate cancer cells. Validation experiments were carried out in vitro and in vivo. Results We identified the TKI nilotinib as a novel compound with antineoplastic activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. However, further analyses revealed that treatment with nilotinib was associated with a significant up-regulation of the phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) survival signal. ERK blockade alone led to a significant antitumoral effect and enhanced the cytotoxicity of nilotinib when used in combination. Conclusions Our findings underscore that TKIs, such as nilotinib, have antitumoral activity in prostate cancer cells but that survival signals, such as ERK up-regulation, may mitigate their effectiveness. ERK blockade alone or in combination with TKIs may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in advanced prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Despite early detection and reduced risk of death, prostate cancer still remains the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. There is currently no cure for advanced prostate cancer. The multistage, stochastic and highly heterogeneous nature of prostate cancer, coupled with genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur during disease progression and response to therapy, represent fundamental challenges in our quest to understand and control this complex and prevalent disease. Recent advances in drug development and breakthroughs in omics technologies have renewed our efforts to identify novel biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis, prediction, and therapeutic response monitoring. In this perspective article, we overview the current status and highlight future prospects of biomarkers for prostate cancer, a disease that affects millions of men worldwide.Frontiers in Endocrinology 05/2012; 3(article 72):72. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00072