The changing therapeutic landscape of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Drug Development Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 15.03). 08/2011; 8(10):597-610. DOI: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.117
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has a poor prognosis and remains a significant therapeutic challenge. Before 2010, only docetaxel-based chemotherapy improved survival in patients with CRPC compared with mitoxantrone. Our improved understanding of the underlying biology of CRPC has heralded a new era in molecular anticancer drug development, with a myriad of novel anticancer drugs for CRPC entering the clinic. These include the novel taxane cabazitaxel, the vaccine sipuleucel-T, the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone, the novel androgen-receptor antagonist MDV-3100 and the radioisotope alpharadin. With these developments, the management of patients with CRPC is changing. In this Review, we discuss these promising therapies along with other novel agents that are demonstrating early signs of activity in CRPC. We propose a treatment pathway for patients with CRPC and consider strategies to optimize the use of these agents, including the incorporation of predictive and intermediate end point biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells.

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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of androgen dependence in prostate cancer in 1941 by Huggins and colleagues has remained the backbone for the treatment of this disease. However, although many patients initially respond to androgen depletion therapy, they almost invariably relapse and develop resistance with transition of the disease to a castration-resistant state. Over the past decade, the better understanding of the mechanisms that drive resistance to castration has led to the development of next-generation androgen receptor targeting agents such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. This Review aims to revisit the discovery and evolution of androgen receptor targeting therapeutics for the treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer over the years and to discuss the upcoming future and challenges in the treatment of this common cancer.
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