The changing therapeutic landscape of castration-resistant prostate cancer

Drug Development Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 15.7). 08/2011; 8(10):597-610. DOI: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.117
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has a poor prognosis and remains a significant therapeutic challenge. Before 2010, only docetaxel-based chemotherapy improved survival in patients with CRPC compared with mitoxantrone. Our improved understanding of the underlying biology of CRPC has heralded a new era in molecular anticancer drug development, with a myriad of novel anticancer drugs for CRPC entering the clinic. These include the novel taxane cabazitaxel, the vaccine sipuleucel-T, the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone, the novel androgen-receptor antagonist MDV-3100 and the radioisotope alpharadin. With these developments, the management of patients with CRPC is changing. In this Review, we discuss these promising therapies along with other novel agents that are demonstrating early signs of activity in CRPC. We propose a treatment pathway for patients with CRPC and consider strategies to optimize the use of these agents, including the incorporation of predictive and intermediate end point biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells.