Neurological injury in adults treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be urgently used as a last resort form of life support when all other treatment options for potentially reversible cardiopulmonary injury have failed.
To examine the range and frequency of neurological injury in ECMO-treated adults.
Retrospective clinicopathological cohort study.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
A prospectively collected registry of all patients 15 years or older treated with ECMO for 12 or more hours from January 2002 to April 2010.
Patients were analyzed for potential risk factors for neurological events and death using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models.
Neurological diagnosis and/or death.
A total of 87 adults were treated (35 female [40%]; median age, 54 years [interquartile range, 31]; mean duration of ECMO, 91 hours [interquartile range, 100]; overall survival >7 days after ECMO, 52%). Neurological events occurred in 42 patients who received ECMO (50%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 39%-61%). Diagnoses included subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemic watershed infarctions, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, unexplained coma, and brain death. Death in patients who received ECMO who did not require antecedent cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with increased age (odds ratio, 1.24 per decade; 95% CI, 1.03-1.50; P = .02) and lower minimum arterial oxygen pressure (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .03). Although stroke was rarely diagnosed clinically, 9 of 10 brains studied at autopsy demonstrated hypoxic-ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions of vascular origin.
Severe neurological sequelae occur frequently in adult ECMO-treated patients with otherwise reversible cardiopulmonary injury (conservative estimate, 50%) and include a range of potentially fatal neurological diagnoses that may be due to the precipitating event and/or ECMO treatment.
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ABSTRACT: The addition of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) during peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support has been shown to improve coronary bypass graft flows and cardiac function in refractory cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of additional IABP support on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with peripheral VA ECMO following cardiac procedures. Twelve patients (mean age 60.40 +/- 9.80 years) received VA ECMO combined with IABP support for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock after coronary artery bypass grafting. The mean CBF in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries was measured with and without IABP counterpulsation by transcranial Doppler. The patients provided their control values. The mean CBF data were divided into two groups (pulsatile pressure greater than 10 mmHg, P group; pulsatile pressure less than 10 mmHg, N group) based on whether the patients experienced cardiac stun. The mean cerebral blood flow in VA ECMO (IABP turned off) alone and VA ECMO with IABP support were compared using the paired t test. All of the patients were successfully weaned from VA ECMO, and eight patients survived to discharge. The addition of IABP to VA ECMO did not change the mean CBF (251.47 +/- 79.28 ml/min vs. 251.30 +/- 79.47 ml/min, P = 0.963). The mean CBF was higher in VA ECMO alone than in VA ECMO combined with IABP support in the N group (257.68 +/- 97.21 ml/min vs. 239.47 +/- 95.60, P = 0.00). The addition of IABP to VA ECMO support increased the mean CBF values significantly compared with VA ECMO alone (261.68 +/- 82.45 ml/min vs. 244.43 +/- 45.85 ml/min, P = 0.00) in the P group. These results demonstrate that an IABP significantly changes the CBF during peripheral VA ECMO, depending on the antegrade blood flow by spontaneous cardiac function. The addition of an IABP to VA ECMO support decreased the CBF during cardiac stun, and it increased CBF without cardiac stun.Journal of Translational Medicine 04/2014; 12(1):106. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite modern treatment modalities, cardiogenic shock is associated with a very high risk of mortality and morbidity. The short- and long-term survival in patients with cardiogenic shock or end-stage heart failure has improved considerably by recent technological advances in short and long-term mechanical circulatory support devices. For short-term mechanical support, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has been increasingly used as bridge-to-decision and bridge-to-recovery in cardiogenic shock patients. Long-term mechanical circulatory support devices such as left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are widely available and play a central role in bridge-to-transplantation in those eligible for heart transplantation (HTX) and as destination therapy (DT) in those not eligible for heart transplantation. Nevertheless, patients with critical cardiogenic shock show a deleterious outcome after LVAD-implantation or HTX with higher mortality, more complications and higher burden on financial resources. These considerations underscore the importance of optimal timing and appropriate patient selection for eventual LVAD therapy. The current report will focus on the immediate management of patients with cardiogenic shock with inotropes, discuss the use of IABP and focus mainly on pivotal choices to be made in the period spanned by short term mechanical circulatory support in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock.Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a method of life support to maintain cardiopulmonary function. Its use as a medical application has increased since its inception to treat multiple conditions including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial ischemia, cardiomyopathy, and septic shock. While complications including neurological and renal injury occur in patients on ECMO, bleeding and coagulopathy are most common. ECMO is associated with an inflammatory response promoting a hypercoagulable state, requiring anticoagulation to avoid thromboembolism originating in the nonendothelial surfaced circuit. However, excessive anticoagulation may result in bleeding complications including intracerebral hemorrhage. Monitoring anticoagulation for ECMO has its origins in cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery; however, there is no ideal level of anticoagulation, no standardized method to monitor anticoagulation, nor are all centers standardized on what is used for anticoagulation. Multiple blood products are used in an effort to decrease bleeding in the setting of anticoagulation, often in the setting of recent surgery, and this leads to significant increases in cost for patients on ECMO and transfusion-related complications. In this review article, we discuss the evolution of the various modalities of ECMO, indications, contraindications, and complications. Furthermore, we review the different strategies for anticoagulation and treatment of coagulopathy while on ECMO. Finally, we discuss the cost of ECMO and associated blood product transfusion.Anesthesia and analgesia 04/2014; 118(4):731-43. · 3.08 Impact Factor