Neurological injury in adults treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be urgently used as a last resort form of life support when all other treatment options for potentially reversible cardiopulmonary injury have failed.
To examine the range and frequency of neurological injury in ECMO-treated adults.
Retrospective clinicopathological cohort study.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
A prospectively collected registry of all patients 15 years or older treated with ECMO for 12 or more hours from January 2002 to April 2010.
Patients were analyzed for potential risk factors for neurological events and death using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models.
Neurological diagnosis and/or death.
A total of 87 adults were treated (35 female [40%]; median age, 54 years [interquartile range, 31]; mean duration of ECMO, 91 hours [interquartile range, 100]; overall survival >7 days after ECMO, 52%). Neurological events occurred in 42 patients who received ECMO (50%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 39%-61%). Diagnoses included subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemic watershed infarctions, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, unexplained coma, and brain death. Death in patients who received ECMO who did not require antecedent cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with increased age (odds ratio, 1.24 per decade; 95% CI, 1.03-1.50; P = .02) and lower minimum arterial oxygen pressure (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .03). Although stroke was rarely diagnosed clinically, 9 of 10 brains studied at autopsy demonstrated hypoxic-ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions of vascular origin.
Severe neurological sequelae occur frequently in adult ECMO-treated patients with otherwise reversible cardiopulmonary injury (conservative estimate, 50%) and include a range of potentially fatal neurological diagnoses that may be due to the precipitating event and/or ECMO treatment.
Article: First-year experience of a Brazilian tertiary medical center in supporting severely ill patients using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the first year of our experience using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Ten patients with severe refractory hypoxemia, two with associated severe cardiovascular failure, were supported using venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (eight patients) or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (two patients). The median age of the patients was 31 yr (range 14-71 yr). Their median simplified acute physiological score three (SAPS3) was 94 (range 84-118), and they had a median expected mortality of 95% (range 87-99%). Community-acquired pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (50%), followed by P. jiroveci pneumonia in two patients with AIDS (20%). Six patients were transferred from other ICUs during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, three of whom were transferred between ICUs within the hospital (30%), two by ambulance (20%) and one by helicopter (10%). Only one patient (10%) was anticoagulated with heparin throughout extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Eighty percent of patients required continuous venous-venous hemofiltration. Three patients (30%) developed persistent hypoxemia, which was corrected using higher positive end-expiratory pressure, higher inspired oxygen fractions, recruitment maneuvers, and nitric oxide. The median time on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was five (range 3-32) days. The median length of the hospital stay was 31 (range 3-97) days. Four patients (40%) survived to 60 days, and they were free from renal replacement therapy and oxygen support. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in severely ill patients is possible in the presence of a structured team. Efforts must be made to recognize the necessity of extracorporeal respiratory support at an early stage and to prompt activation of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation team.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 10/2012; 67(10):1157-63. · 1.59 Impact Factor