Manifestation of Long QT syndrome with normal QTc interval under anesthesia: a case report
Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Pediatric Anesthesia
(Impact Factor: 1.85).
08/2011; 21(12):1265-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03679.x
Patients with congenital Long QT are known to have normal QT interval in symptom-free period and in the early years of life. Precipitating factors like surgical stress, interactions with anesthetic agents prolonging QT interval, and electrolyte imbalances can manifest with life threatening arrhythmias in congenital or acquired Long QT syndrome. We report a case of concealed LQTS manifesting under anesthesia and its subsequent perioperative course.
Figures in this publication
Available from: J. Philip Miller
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abnormal cardiac repolarization, indicated by a prolongation of the QT interval, increases the risk for torsades de pointes, a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia. Many perioperatively administered drugs and conditions prolong the QT interval. Despite several reports of perioperative torsades de pointes, systematic evidence regarding perioperative QT interval prolongation is limited.
Serial postoperative 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained from 469 adult patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Heart rate corrected QT-interval duration (Fridericia formula) was the primary outcome. All perioperatively administered drugs were recorded. Emphasis was placed on absolute QTc prolongation greater than 500 ms and relative increases of 30 and 60 ms.
At the end of surgery, 80% of the patients (345 of 429) experienced a significant QTc interval prolongation (ΔQTc 23 ± 26 ms (mean and SD), 95% CI 20-25 ms, P less than 0.001). Approximately 51% (219 of 429) had a QTc greater than 440 ms, and 4% (16 of 429) a QTc greater than 500 ms. In 39% (166 of 429), the ΔQTc was greater than 30 ms, in 8% (34 of 429) >60 ms, and in greater than 0.5% (2 of 429) >100 ms. No changes in ΔQTc occurred at subsequent time points. One patient developed torsades de pointes with a ΔQTc: 29 ms (0.4% incidence rate). Several drugs had a large effect on ΔQTc: isoflurane, methadone, ketorolac, cefoxitin, zosyn, unasyn, epinephrine, ephedrine, and calcium. Postoperative body temperature had a weak negative correlation with ΔQTc (r = -0.15, P = 0.02); serum magnesium, potassium, and calcium concentrations were not correlated.
Postoperative QT-interval prolongation is common. Several perioperatively administered drugs are associated with a substantial QT-interval prolongation. The exact cause and its clinical relevance are, however, unclear. Nevertheless, an association between postoperative QT prolongation and risk for torsades de pointes is likely.
Anesthesiology 06/2012; 117(2):321-8. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31825e6eb3 · 5.88 Impact Factor
Available from: Giovanni Fazio
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long QT syndrome incidence is increasing in general population. A careful pre-, peri- and post-operative management is needed for patients with this syndrome because of the risk of Torsades de Pointes and malignant arrhythmias. The available data regarding prevention of lethal Torsades de Pointes during anesthesia in patients with long QT syndrome is scant and conflicting: only case reports and small case series with different outcomes have been published. Actually, there are no definitive guidelines on pre-, peri- and post-operative anesthetic management of congenital long QT syndrome. Our review focuses on anesthetic recommendations for patients diagnosed with congenital long QT syndrome furnishing some key points for preoperative optimization, intraoperative anesthetic agents and postoperative care plan, which could be the best for patients with c-long QT syndrome who undergo surgery.
World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 04/2013; 5(4):87-93. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v5.i4.87 · 2.06 Impact Factor
Available from: Detlef Obal
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
To test the primary hypothesis that ondansetron or dolasetron extends the rate-corrected QT electrocardiographic interval (QTc) greater than 60 milliseconds or increases the fraction of patients with QTc greater than 500 milliseconds in patients having noncardiac surgery, and the secondary hypothesis that QTc prolongation is worse in diabetic patients.
Patients and Methods
We extracted data from the Cleveland Clinic's Perioperative Health Documentation System between March 25, 2006, and September 30, 2010, and additional perioperative medications from Cleveland Clinic pharmacy's Epic Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) system. We searched for patients who had a preoperative electrocardiogram within 1 month of surgery and postoperatively within 2 hours. We excluded patients given an antiemetic drug other than ondansetron or dolasetron perioperatively, and those given amiodarone.
A total of 1429 patients given serotonin-3 receptor (5HT3R) antagonists and 1022 controls met the enrollment criteria. Seventeen percent of patients given 5HT3R antagonists (n=242) and 22% of controls (n=220) had postoperative QTc exceeding 500 milliseconds. Mean ± SD presurgical and postsurgical QTc, respectively, were 438±37 milliseconds and 464±41 milliseconds for 5HT3R antagonist patients and 443±40 milliseconds and 469±47 milliseconds for control patients. Univariable mean ± SD perioperative increases in QTc were 26±39 and 26±48 milliseconds in the 2 groups. After adjusting for confounding variables, there were no differences in the mean increase in QTc in patients who were and were not given 5HT3R antagonists: –0.1 milliseconds (97.5% CI, –5.2 to 5.0 milliseconds; multivariable P=.97). The QTc was prolonged, but not significantly, in diabetic patients given 5HT3R antagonists (P=.16).
The average QTc prolongation from baseline was only 6%. Perioperative use of ondansetron or dolasetron was not associated with extended QT prolongation, and these results did not vary by diabetic status. Perioperative use of 5HT3R antagonists does not produce potentially dangerous perioperative electrocardiographic changes and does not seem to warrant a drug safety warning from the Food and Drug Administration.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 01/2014; 89(1):69–80. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.10.008 · 6.26 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.