Teratogenicity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or receptor blockers
ABSTRACT Studies of 1st trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers examining teratogenicity have shown conflicting results. We systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis evaluating the risk of major malformations. For the meta-analysis, we included studies comparing 1st trimester exposure to no exposure, or to exposure to other antihypertensives. Additionally, we conducted a qualitative analysis of studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. A significant risk ratio was found when the exposed group was compared with healthy controls but not when compared with other antihypertensives. The qualitative analysis did not demonstrate a specific pattern of major malformations. Our results suggest that 1st trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is not associated with an elevated risk of major malformations compared with other antihypertensives. A 1st trimester exposure to antihypertensives in general may be associated with an elevated risk of major malformations.
SourceAvailable from: Peter von Dadelszen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Labetalol is one of the most commonly used antihypertensive medications for the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy, an increasingly common and leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The literature reviewed included the 2014 Canadian national pregnancy hypertension guideline and its references. The additional published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy toxemias) and key words (e.g., diagnosis, evaluation, classification, prediction, prevention, prognosis, treatment, and postpartum follow-up).Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in French or English, Jan-Mar/14. The unpublished literature was identified by searching websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. We evaluated the impact of interventions on substantive clinical outcomes for mothers and babies. Labetalol is a reasonable choice for treatment of severe or non-severe hypertension in pregnancy. However, we should continue our search for other therapeutic options.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 03/2015; 14(3):453-61. DOI:10.1517/14740338.2015.998197 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are effective and widely used antihypertensive drugs. Exposure to these agents is known to be harmful to the fetus in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Concerns have also been raised about the risk of congenital malformations if ACEIs or ARBs are taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. The evidence to date, however, is conflicting and observed malformations may be due to confounders such as undiagnosed diabetes or maternal obesity, other antihypertensive medications or the hypertension itself. Nonetheless, in women who become pregnant while taking an ACEI or ARB, the drug should be stopped as soon as possible. In women with chronic kidney disease and proteinuria, it may be appropriate to continue taking an ACEI or ARB until the pregnancy is confirmed because of the significant benefit to their kidney function and the lower fertility rate in these patients.Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1586/17512433.2015.1005074
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The potential risks related to drug exposure during pregnancy represent a vast chapter in modern obstetrics and data regarding the safety of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy are relatively scarce. Case report: A 37-year-old patient discovered her fifth pregnancy at our hospital after 26 weeks and 4 days of gestation. She reported a history of hypertension and was currently being treated with Losartan. Hospitalization was recommended for the patient and further evaluation of fetal vitality was performed. On the fourth day an ultrasound was performed, resulting in a severe oligohydramnios, fetal centralization and abnormal ductus venosus. After 36 hours, the newborn died. Pathologic evaluation: At autopsy, the skullcap had large fontanels and deficient ossification. The kidneys were slightly enlarged. A microscopic examination detected underdevelopment of the tubules and the presence of some dilated lumens. Immunohistochemical detection of epithelial membrane antigen was positive. Immunoreactivity of CD 15 was also assayed to characterize the proximal tubules, and lumen collapse was observed in some regions. Discussion: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs for hypertension. They are often used by hypertensive women who are considering become pregnant. While their fetal toxicity in the second or third trimesters has been documented, their teratogenic effect during the first trimester has only recently been demonstrated. Conclusion: Constant awareness by physicians and patients should be encouraged, particularly in regard to the prescription of antihypertensive drugs in women of childbearing age who are or intend to become pregnant.Orgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia 09/2014; 36(3):410-413. DOI:10.5935/0101-2800.20140059