Microvascular sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 06/2011; 117(24):6410.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Artemisinin resistance, a long parasite clearance half-life in response to artemisinin, has been described in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. Few baseline half-lives have been reported from Africa, where artemisinins were recently introduced.Methods. We treated P. falciparum malaria in 215 Malian children aged 0.5-15 years with artesunate (0, 24, 48 hours) and amodiaquine (72, 96, 120 hours). We estimated half-life by measuring 6-hourly parasite density until undetectable, and evaluated the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and red blood cell (RBC) polymorphisms on half-life. We quantified the proportion of parasitized RBCs recognized by autologous IgG.Results. The geometric mean half-life was 1.9 hours (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and did not correlate with parasite ex-vivo susceptibility to artemisinins. In a linear model accounting for host factors, half-life decreased by 4.1 minutes for every 1-year increase in age. The proportion of parasitized RBCs recognized by IgG correlated inversely with half-life (r=-0.475, p=0.0006).Conclusions. Parasite clearance in response to artesunate is faster in Mali than in southeast Asia. IgG responses to parasitized RBCs shorten half-life and may influence this parameter in areas where age is not an adequate surrogate of immunity, and correlates of parasite-clearing immunity have not been identified.Trial registration. (NCT00669084).
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2013; 207(11). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit082 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Pailin, western Cambodia, detected as a slow parasite clearance rate in vivo. Emergence of this phenotype in western Thailand and possibly elsewhere threatens to compromise the effectiveness of all artemisinin-based combination therapies. Parasite genetics is associated with parasite clearance rate but does not account for all variation. We investigated contributions of both parasite genetics and host factors to the artemisinin-resistance phenotype in Pursat, western Cambodia. Between June 19 and Nov 28, 2009, and June 26 and Dec 6, 2010, we enrolled patients aged 10 years or older with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, a density of asexual parasites of at least 10 000 per μL of whole blood, no symptoms or signs of severe malaria, no other cause of febrile illness, and no chronic illness. We gave participants 4 mg/kg artesunate at 0, 24, and 48 h, 15 mg/kg mefloquine at 72 h, and 10 mg/kg mefloquine at 96 h. We assessed parasite density on thick blood films every 6 h until undetectable. The parasite clearance half-life was calculated from the parasite clearance curve. We genotyped parasites with 18 microsatellite markers and patients for haemoglobin E, α-thalassaemia, and a mutation of G6PD, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. To account for the possible effects of acquired immunity on half-life, we used three surrogates for increased likelihood of exposure to P falciparum: age, sex, and place of residence. This study is registered with, number NCT00341003. We assessed 3504 individuals from all six districts of Pursat province seeking treatment for malaria symptoms. We enrolled 168 patients with falciparum malaria who met inclusion criteria. The geometric mean half-life was 5·85 h (95% CI 5·54-6·18) in Pursat, similar to that reported in Pailin (p=0·109). We identified two genetically different parasite clone groups: parasite group 1 (PG1) and parasite group 2 (PG2). Non-significant increases in parasite clearance half-life were seen in patients with haemoglobin E (0·55 h; p=0·078), those of male sex (0·96 h; p=0·064), and in 2010 (0·68 h; p=0·068); PG1 was associated with a significant increase (0·79 h; p=0·033). The mean parasite heritability of half-life was 0·40 (SD 0·17). Heritable artemisinin resistance is established in a second Cambodian province. To accurately identify parasites that are intrinsically susceptible or resistant to artemisinins, future studies should explore the effect of erythrocyte polymorphisms and specific immune responses on half-life variation. Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 08/2012; 12(11):851-8. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70181-0 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple red cell variants are known to confer protection from malaria. Here, we review advances in identifying new variants that modulate malaria risk and in defining molecular mechanisms that mediate malaria protection. New red cell variants, including an innate variant in the red cell's major Ca pump and the acquired state of iron deficiency, have been associated with protection from clinical falciparum malaria. The polymorphisms hemoglobin C (HbC) and hemoglobin S (HbS) - known to protect carriers from severe falciparum malaria - enhance parasite passage to mosquitoes and may promote malaria transmission. At the molecular level, substantial advances have been made in understanding the impact of HbS and HbC upon the interactions between host microRNAs and Plasmodium falciparum protein translation; remodeling of red cell cytoskeletal components and transport of parasite proteins to the red cell surface; and chronic activation of the human innate immune system, which induces tolerance to blood-stage parasites. Several polymorphisms have now been associated with protection from clinical vivax malaria or reduced Plasmodium vivax density, including Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and two common forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Red cell variants that modulate malaria risk can serve as models to identify clinically relevant mechanisms of pathogenesis, and thus define parasite and host targets for next-generation therapies.
    Current opinion in hematology 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/MOH.0000000000000039 · 4.05 Impact Factor