The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, Office of Nutrition, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.48). 08/2011; 123(2):333-48. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr198
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zu üppige und zu süße Ernährung bei zu wenig Bewegung führten zur starken Gewichtszunahme großer Teile der Bevölkerung. Heute stehen 10 zugelassene kalorienfreie Süßstoffe zur Verfügung, um den großen Bedarf zu decken. Keiner von ihnen ist ideal, aber optimale Mischungen zeigen eine so gute Geschmacksqualität, dass selbst Gourmets den Zucker in verschiedenen Essenszubereitungen ersetzen können. Kalorienfreie Süßstoffe sind, trotz ihres schlechten Rufs in den Medien, eine wirkliche Erfolgsgeschichte. Die Chemie hat sie möglich gemacht.Too much and too sweet food with too little physical activity has led to an excessive weight gain of our population. Today about 10 permitted no calory sweeteners are on the market to meet the enormous demand. None of them are ideal, but clever mixtures have such a good taste quality that even gourmets can substitute sugar in various food preparations. No calory sweeteners are, in spite of their negative media image, a real success story. Chemistry made it possible.
    Chemie in unserer Zeit 06/2012; 46(3). · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialization, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.
    Food Chemistry 06/2015; 176:426-432. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Artificial sweeteners are substances that provide energy and are added to foods to provide sweetness, increasing the pleasure of eating. The aim of the following review is to report on the current literature regarding artificial sweeteners, risks related to consumption, and possible effects on appetite and weight gain. Since the introduction of the artificial sweeteners, the media have reported the potential risks of cancer, which has undermined the sense of public safety. The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated in recent decades. Recent studies indicate no adverse effects on the consumption of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame k and other sweeteners. This includes data on cancers of the stomach, pancreas and endometrium. Today many artificial sweeteners are combined in current products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. Consumption of sweet flavors in the absence of calories produced significantly different effects compared to the consumption of sweet flavors associated with calories, and over time these effects may contribute to a positive energy balance and increased body weight gain.
    Revista Chilena de Nutricion 09/2013; 40(3):309-314.

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Jul 30, 2014