Prevalence and associated risk factors for postpartum depression in women attending a tertiary hospital, Delhi, India
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health is a largely ignored issue in the Indian population. Considering the high prevalence of postpartum depression, mental health assessment and screening of high-risk cases should be a part of routine antenatal care. AIM: To study the prevalence of women at risk for peripartum depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi, and to study the associated risk factors in the Indian population. METHOD: Five hundred and six (506) peripartum women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which included sociodemographic details like socioeconomic status, family structure, relationship with husband and mother-in-law, past obstetric history and gender of children, any history of previous psychiatric illness and outcome of current pregnancy in terms of mode of delivery, gender of newborn and neonatal complications. EPDS scoring was done using a Hindi translated version. Data were analysed using Epi Info version 3.32. RESULTS: Thirty one (6%) out of 506 women scored ≥ 10 on the EPDS. Birth of female child, nuclear family structure and poor marital relationship were found to have a statistically significant correlation with peripartum depression. CONCLUSION: The 6% prevalence of women at risk of peripartum depression in our study, which is similar to other such studies, is significant and hence maternal mental health assessment should be made a part of routine antenatal and postnatal care.
SourceAvailable from: Masoumeh Abedzadeh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common problem after child's birth and may influence the quality of life (QOL). Investigation of postpartum QOL and depression can be useful for better care for mothers and improvement of their well-being. The objective of this study was to assess the life quality in mothers with and without PPD. In a prospective study, women who had experienced child's birth with and without PPD were recruited in Kashan-Iran. PPD was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and QOL was measured by SF-36 questionnaire. Data collection was conducted at two assessment points: second month (n = 321) and fourth month (n = 300) postpartum. Based on EPDS, a score of 13 or more was defined as PPD. Mean scores of SF-36 questionnaire were compared between women with and without PPD at two assessment points and within each group from the first to the second assessments. Moreover, correlation between scores of EPDS and scores of life quality dimensions were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square test, Pair t test, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Differences in seven out of eight mean scores of QOL dimensions (except role-physical) between depressed and non-depressed women at the first and the second assessments were significant. Results of changes in mean scores of QOL dimensions from the first to the second assessments in each group showed that non-depressed women scored higher in all of eight dimensions with significant differences in two dimensions (bodily pain and role-emotional as well as mental health component). In depressed women, scores of life quality decreased in some of QOL dimensions but differences were not significant. There were significant negative correlations between EPDS scores and scores of seven out of eight SF-36 sub-scales (except role-physical) in addition to physical and mental health components at two assessments. The highest correlation was found between EPDS scores and emotional well-being and total scores of SF-36 dimension at the first and the second assessments (r = -o.489, r = -0.381), respectively. The findings demonstrated that postpartum depression leads to a lower life quality at second and fourth months postpartum. Integration of PPD screening into routine postnatal care is recommended.02/2014; 16(2):e14995. DOI:10.5812/ircmj.14995
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ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of gender of the baby on exclusive breastfeeding and incidence of postnatal depression (PND). We hypothesise that in a society with a male gender bias there may be more PND and less exclusive breastfeeding of the girl child.BMJ Open 06/2014; 4(6):e003545. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003545 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important health issue that affects not only mothers, but also entire families. Postpartum follow-up should address emotional and psychological issues, as well as physical issues, especially in those at risk. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PPD and the associated risk factors in a group of new mothers undergoing routine follow-up at an urban maternity clinic. This is a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between PPD and various factors. A total of 187 women that presented to a university hospital for routine postpartum follow-up 4-6 weeks post delivery were recruited consecutively. The mothers were administered a sociodemographic form that included questions about the known risk factors (sociodemographic and sociocultural factors, and mother-related, pregnancy-related, and child-related factors) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The incidence of PPD based on EPDS scores was 28.9% (scores > 12 were defined as PPD). Unplanned/unintended pregnancy, bottle-feeding only, mother's lack of satisfaction with the baby's sleep pattern, lack of family support for baby care, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were significantly correlated with PPD (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that bottle-feeding, lack of family support, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were the primary factors that significantly increased the risk of PPD. The findings show that the PPD occurs in almost one-third of women and that, among the risk factors, sociocultural factors were the most strongly associated with PPD.The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 01/2013; 46(2):179-94. DOI:10.2190/PM.46.2.e · 0.81 Impact Factor