Prevalence and associated risk factors for postpartum depression in women attending a tertiary hospital, Delhi, India
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India.International Journal of Social Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 1.15). 08/2011; 58(6). DOI: 10.1177/0020764011415210
BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health is a largely ignored issue in the Indian population. Considering the high prevalence of postpartum depression, mental health assessment and screening of high-risk cases should be a part of routine antenatal care. AIM: To study the prevalence of women at risk for peripartum depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi, and to study the associated risk factors in the Indian population. METHOD: Five hundred and six (506) peripartum women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which included sociodemographic details like socioeconomic status, family structure, relationship with husband and mother-in-law, past obstetric history and gender of children, any history of previous psychiatric illness and outcome of current pregnancy in terms of mode of delivery, gender of newborn and neonatal complications. EPDS scoring was done using a Hindi translated version. Data were analysed using Epi Info version 3.32. RESULTS: Thirty one (6%) out of 506 women scored ≥ 10 on the EPDS. Birth of female child, nuclear family structure and poor marital relationship were found to have a statistically significant correlation with peripartum depression. CONCLUSION: The 6% prevalence of women at risk of peripartum depression in our study, which is similar to other such studies, is significant and hence maternal mental health assessment should be made a part of routine antenatal and postnatal care.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Research among AI mothers living in countries other than the United States (e.g., Australia, Canada, India, United Kingdom) suggests PPD rates between 6% and 32% (Affonso, De, Horowitz, & Mayberry, 2000; Chandran, Tharyan, Muliyil, & Abraham, 2002; Dubey et al., 2012; Patel, Rodrigues, & de Souza, 2002). Disparate rates may be attributed to screening method (self-report vs. clinical interview), cutoff scores, timing of depression measurement , instrument translation, availability of mental healthcare providers, and cultural values. "
ABSTRACT: To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing 07/2015; 40(4):256-61. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0000000000000146 · 0.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30935. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0030935 · 3.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important health issue that affects not only mothers, but also entire families. Postpartum follow-up should address emotional and psychological issues, as well as physical issues, especially in those at risk. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PPD and the associated risk factors in a group of new mothers undergoing routine follow-up at an urban maternity clinic. This is a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between PPD and various factors. A total of 187 women that presented to a university hospital for routine postpartum follow-up 4-6 weeks post delivery were recruited consecutively. The mothers were administered a sociodemographic form that included questions about the known risk factors (sociodemographic and sociocultural factors, and mother-related, pregnancy-related, and child-related factors) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The incidence of PPD based on EPDS scores was 28.9% (scores > 12 were defined as PPD). Unplanned/unintended pregnancy, bottle-feeding only, mother's lack of satisfaction with the baby's sleep pattern, lack of family support for baby care, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were significantly correlated with PPD (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that bottle-feeding, lack of family support, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were the primary factors that significantly increased the risk of PPD. The findings show that the PPD occurs in almost one-third of women and that, among the risk factors, sociocultural factors were the most strongly associated with PPD.The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 01/2013; 46(2):179-94. DOI:10.2190/PM.46.2.e · 0.89 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.