Prevalence and associated risk factors for postpartum depression in women attending a tertiary hospital, Delhi, India

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 1.15). 08/2011; 58(6). DOI: 10.1177/0020764011415210
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health is a largely ignored issue in the Indian population. Considering the high prevalence of postpartum depression, mental health assessment and screening of high-risk cases should be a part of routine antenatal care. AIM: To study the prevalence of women at risk for peripartum depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi, and to study the associated risk factors in the Indian population. METHOD: Five hundred and six (506) peripartum women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which included sociodemographic details like socioeconomic status, family structure, relationship with husband and mother-in-law, past obstetric history and gender of children, any history of previous psychiatric illness and outcome of current pregnancy in terms of mode of delivery, gender of newborn and neonatal complications. EPDS scoring was done using a Hindi translated version. Data were analysed using Epi Info version 3.32. RESULTS: Thirty one (6%) out of 506 women scored ≥ 10 on the EPDS. Birth of female child, nuclear family structure and poor marital relationship were found to have a statistically significant correlation with peripartum depression. CONCLUSION: The 6% prevalence of women at risk of peripartum depression in our study, which is similar to other such studies, is significant and hence maternal mental health assessment should be made a part of routine antenatal and postnatal care.

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    • "Research among AI mothers living in countries other than the United States (e.g., Australia, Canada, India, United Kingdom) suggests PPD rates between 6% and 32% (Affonso, De, Horowitz, & Mayberry, 2000; Chandran, Tharyan, Muliyil, & Abraham, 2002; Dubey et al., 2012; Patel, Rodrigues, & de Souza, 2002). Disparate rates may be attributed to screening method (self-report vs. clinical interview), cutoff scores, timing of depression measurement , instrument translation, availability of mental healthcare providers, and cultural values. "
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    ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important health issue that affects not only mothers, but also entire families. Postpartum follow-up should address emotional and psychological issues, as well as physical issues, especially in those at risk. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PPD and the associated risk factors in a group of new mothers undergoing routine follow-up at an urban maternity clinic. This is a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between PPD and various factors. A total of 187 women that presented to a university hospital for routine postpartum follow-up 4-6 weeks post delivery were recruited consecutively. The mothers were administered a sociodemographic form that included questions about the known risk factors (sociodemographic and sociocultural factors, and mother-related, pregnancy-related, and child-related factors) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The incidence of PPD based on EPDS scores was 28.9% (scores > 12 were defined as PPD). Unplanned/unintended pregnancy, bottle-feeding only, mother's lack of satisfaction with the baby's sleep pattern, lack of family support for baby care, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were significantly correlated with PPD (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that bottle-feeding, lack of family support, lack of satisfaction with the marital relationship, and family violence were the primary factors that significantly increased the risk of PPD. The findings show that the PPD occurs in almost one-third of women and that, among the risk factors, sociocultural factors were the most strongly associated with PPD.
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