Changes in the plasma proteome follows chronic opiate administration in simian immunodeficiency virus infected rhesus macaques.
ABSTRACT Substantive plasma proteomic changes follow lentiviral infection and disease pathobiology. We posit that such protein alterations are modified during drug abuse, further serving to affect the disease. To this end, we investigated the effect of opiate administration on the plasma proteome of Indian-strain rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain smm9.
Whole blood was collected at 7 weeks prior to and 1.4 and 49 weeks after viral infection. Viral load, CD4(+) T cell subsets, and plasma protein content were measured from monkeys that did or did not receive continuous opiate administrations. The plasma proteome was identified and quantified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry.
While substantive changes in plasma proteins were seen during SIV infection, the addition of opiates led to suppression of these changes as well as increased variance of the proteome. These changes demonstrate that opiates induce broad but variant immune suppression in SIV-infected monkeys.
The broad suppressive changes seen in plasma of SIV-infected monkeys likely reflect reduced multisystem immune homeostatic responses induced by opiates. Such occur as a consequence of complex cell-to-cell interactions operative between the virus and the host. We conclude that such changes in plasma proteomic profiling may be underappreciated and as such supports the need for improved clinical definitions.
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ABSTRACT: Lentiviral replication in its target cells affects a delicate balance between cellular cofactors required for virus propagation and immunoregulation for host defense. To better elucidate cellular proteins linked to viral infection, we tested plasma from rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency viral strain SIVsmm9, prior to, 10 days (acute), and 49 weeks (chronic) after viral infection. Changes in plasma protein content were measured by quantitative mass spectrometry by isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ) methods. An 81 and 232% increase in SERPINA1 was seen during acute and chronic infection, respectively. Interestingly, gelsolin, vitamin D binding protein and histidine rich glycoprotein were decreased by 45% in acute conditions but returned to baseline during chronic infection. When compared to uninfected controls, a 48-103% increase in leucine rich alpha 2-glycoprotein, vitronectin, and ceruloplasmin was observed during chronic viral infection. Observed changes in plasma proteins expression likely represent a compensatory host response to persistent viral infection.Journal of Proteome Research 09/2010; 9(9):4721-31. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We review the fundamental principles of statistical experimental design, and their application to quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We focus on class comparison using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and discuss how randomization, replication and blocking help avoid systematic biases due to the experimental procedure, and help optimize our ability to detect true quantitative changes between groups. We also discuss the issues of pooling multiple biological specimens for a single mass analysis, and calculation of the number of replicates in a future study. When applicable, we emphasize the parallels between designing quantitative proteomic experiments and experiments with gene expression microarrays, and give examples from that area of research. We illustrate the discussion using theoretical considerations, and using real-data examples of profiling of disease.Journal of Proteome Research 03/2009; 8(5):2144-56. · 5.11 Impact Factor