Macrophage diversity in cardiac inflammation: A review
ABSTRACT Cardiac inflammatory disease represents a significant public health burden, and interesting questions of immunopathologic science and clinical inquiry. Novel insights into the diverse programming and functions within the macrophage lineages in recent years have yielded a view of these cells as dynamic effectors and regulators of immunity, host defense, and inflammatory disease. In this review, we examine and discuss recent investigations into the complex participation of mononuclear phagocytic cells in the pathology of animal models of myocarditis.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, cell damage, or irritants. Inflammation is considered to be a major cause of most chronic diseases, especially in more than 100 types of inflammatory diseases which include Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, Crohn's disease, colitis, dermatitis, hepatitis, and Parkinson's disease. Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on inflammatory diseases. TBK1 is a serine/threonine-protein kinase which regulates antiviral defense, host-virus interaction, and immunity. It is ubiquitously expressed in mouse stomach, colon, thymus, and liver. Interestingly, high levels of active TBK1 have also been found to be associated with inflammatory diseases, indicating that TBK1 is closely related to inflammatory responses. Even though relatively few studies have addressed the functional roles of TBK1 relating to inflammation, this paper discusses some recent findings that support the critical role of TBK1 in inflammatory diseases and underlie the necessity of trials to develop useful remedies or therapeutics that target TBK1 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2012; 2012:979105. DOI:10.1155/2012/979105 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden cardiac failure in young adults. Natural killer (NK) cells, a subset of the innate lymphoid cell compartment, are protective in viral myocarditis. Herein, we demonstrated that these protective qualities extend to suppressing autoimmune inflammation. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was initiated in BALB/c mice by immunization with myocarditogenic peptide. During EAM, activated cardiac NK cells secreted interferon γ, perforin, and granzyme B, and expressed CD69, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand treatment, and CD27 on their cell surfaces. The depletion of NK cells during EAM with anti-asialo GM1 antibody significantly increased myocarditis severity, and was accompanied by elevated fibrosis and a 10-fold increase in the percentage of cardiac-infiltrating eosinophils. The resultant influx of eosinophils to the heart was directly responsible for the increased disease severity in the absence of NK cells, because treatment with polyclonal antibody asialogangloside GM-1 did not augment myocarditis severity in eosinophil-deficient ΔdoubleGATA1 mice. We demonstrate that NK cells limit eosinophilic infiltration both indirectly, through altering eosinophil-related chemokine production by cardiac fibroblasts, and directly, by inducing eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Altogether, we define a new pathway of eosinophilic regulation through interactions with NK cells. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 01/2015; 185(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.023 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite substantial clinical advances over the past 65 years, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America. The past 15 years has witnessed major basic and translational interest in the use of stem and precursor cells as a therapeutic agent for chronically injured organs. Among the cell types under investigation, adult mesenchymal stem cells are widely studied, and in early stage, clinical studies show promise for repair and regeneration of cardiac tissues. The ability of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into mesoderm- and nonmesoderm-derived tissues, their immunomodulatory effects, their availability, and their key role in maintaining and replenishing endogenous stem cell niches have rendered them one of the most heavily investigated and clinically tested type of stem cell. Accumulating data from preclinical and early phase clinical trials document their safety when delivered as either autologous or allogeneic forms in a range of cardiovascular diseases, but also importantly define parameters of clinical efficacy that justify further investigation in larger clinical trials. Here, we review the biology of mesenchymal stem cells, their interaction with endogenous molecular and cellular pathways, and their modulation of immune responses. Additionally, we discuss factors that enhance their proliferative and regenerative ability and factors that may hinder their effectiveness in the clinical setting. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Circulation Research 04/2015; 116(8):1413-1430. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.303614 · 11.09 Impact Factor