Cost-effectiveness and socio-economic aspects of childhood influenza vaccination.
ABSTRACT Children have high rates of healthcare utilization due to influenza. In addition, children also transmit influenza to others in their households and the community. The costs of influenza in children include the direct medical care costs from increased outpatient visits and hospitalizations, and also indirect costs due to productivity losses especially for their parents and due to transmission of the virus to others. A variety of studies using different methods and assumptions have assessed the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of children, and many find that vaccination is either cost saving or cost effective.
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ABSTRACT: In 2011, intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was approved in the EU for prophylaxis of seasonal influenza in 2-17-year-old children. Our objective was to estimate the potential epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of an LAIV-based extension of the influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in Germany. An age-structured dynamic model of influenza transmission was developed and combined with a decision-tree to evaluate different vaccination strategies in the German health care system. Model inputs were based on published literature or were derived by expert consulting using the Delphi technique. Unit costs were drawn from German sources. Under base-case assumptions, annual routine vaccination of children aged 2-17 years with LAIV assuming an uptake of 50 % would prevent, across all ages, 16 million cases of symptomatic influenza, over 600,000 cases of acute otitis media, nearly 130,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia, nearly 1.7 million prescriptions of antibiotics and over 165,000 hospitalisations over 10 years. The discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 1,228 per quality-adjusted life year gained from a broad third-party payer perspective (including reimbursed direct costs and specific transfer payments), when compared with the current strategy of vaccinating primarily risk groups with the conventional trivalent inactivated vaccine. Inclusion of patient co-payments and indirect costs in terms of productivity losses resulted in discounted 10-year cost savings of 3.4 billion. In conclusion, adopting universal influenza immunisation of healthy children and adolescents would lead to a substantial reduction in influenza-associated disease at a reasonable cost to the German statutory health insurance system. On the basis of the epidemiological and health economic simulation results, a recommendation of introducing annual routine influenza vaccination of children 2-17 years of age might be taken into consideration.The European Journal of Health Economics 05/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Routine annual influenza vaccination is primarily recommended for all persons aged 60 and above and for people with underlying chronic conditions in Germany. Other countries have already adopted additional childhood influenza immunisation programmes. The objective of this study is to determine the potential epidemiological impact of implementing paediatric influenza vaccination using intranasally administered live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Germany. A deterministic age-structured model is used to simulate the population-level impact of different vaccination strategies on the transmission dynamics of seasonal influenza in Germany. In our base-case analysis, we estimate the effects of adding a LAIV-based immunisation programme targeting children 2 to 17 years of age to the existing influenza vaccination policy. The data used in the model is based on published evidence complemented by expert opinion. In our model, additional vaccination of children 2 to 17 years of age with LAIV leads to the prevention of 23.9 million influenza infections and nearly 16 million symptomatic influenza cases within 10 years. This reduction in burden of disease is not restricted to children. About one third of all adult cases can indirectly be prevented by LAIV immunisation of children. Our results demonstrate that vaccinating children 2-17 years of age is likely associated with a significant reduction in the burden of paediatric influenza. Furthermore, annual routine childhood vaccination against seasonal influenza is expected to decrease the incidence of influenza among adults and older people due to indirect effects of herd protection. In summary, our model provides data supporting the introduction of a paediatric influenza immunisation programme in Germany.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 14(1):40. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seasonal influenza infections cause a high burden of disease for the whole community every year. Effective vaccines are available and used worldwide in adults and children. Discussion is ongoing as to whether influenza vaccination for children should be implemented in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Is there enough evidence to support routine influenza vaccination in children? In this review we briefly discuss the influenza viruses and the available vaccines. Subsequently, the current data available on influenza vaccination is reviewed and weighed against the Dutch criteria for the introduction of new vaccines into the NIP.The Journal of infection 10/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor