Hypermethylation of RUNX3 but not WIF1 gene and its association with stage and nodal status of tongue cancers.
ABSTRACT Recent studies indicate various molecular abnormalities in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), including DNA methylation of tumor-associated genes. Although promoter hypermethylation of Wnt pathway antagonists RUNX3 (Runt-related transcription factor 3) and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) has been identified as a common event in a number of carcinomas, methylation status and the role of RUNX3 as a possible tumor suppressor in oral and head and neck cancer are yet controversial. The aim of our study is to determine the occurrence of RUNX3 and WIF1 genes hypermethylation and correlation with tumor and host-related factors and prognosis in tongue carcinomas.
In 76 patients with tongue carcinoma, RUNX3 and WIF1 genes promoter hypermethylation analysis was assessed by nested methylation-specific PCR method.
Hypermethylation of WIF1 and RUNX3 genes promoters was observed in 35% and 25% of carcinomas, respectively. RUNX3 gene promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with lymph node involvement (P = 0.013) and tumor stage (P = 0.006), but not with the overall survival. Occurrence of RUNX3 and WIF1 genes comethylation was associated with nodal status (P = 0.058) and tumor stage (P = 0.055).
Our findings indicate that RUNX3 and WIF1 are frequently aberrantly methylated and that RUNX3 promoter methylation could be considered as a potential prognostic marker in tongue carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of tumors with each subtype having a distinct histopathological and molecular profile. Most tumors share, to some extent, the same multistep carcinogenic pathways, which include a wide variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Epigenetic alterations represent all changes in gene expression patterns that do not alter the actual DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that silencing of cancer related genes is not exclusively a result of genetic changes such as mutations or deletions, but it can also be regulated on epigenetic level, mostly by means of gene promoter hypermethylation. Results from recent studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns contain tumor-type-specific signatures, which could serve as biomarkers for clinical outcome in the near future. The topic of this review discusses gene promoter hypermethylation in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The main objective is to analyse the available data on gene promoter hypermethylation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) and to investigate their clinical significance as novel biomarkers in OSCC. Hypermethylation of both genes seems to possess predictive properties for several clinicopathological outcomes. We conclude that the methylation status of p16(INK4A) is definitely a promising candidate biomarker for predicting clinical outcome of OSCC, especially for recurrence-free survival.Disease markers 01/2014; 2014:260549. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Aberrations in the function of the WNT signaling pathway have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancer, and the hypermethylation of several WNT cascade inhibitors were shown to be useful in disease prognosis. However, the extent of deregulation of WNT pathway by DNA hypermethylation has not been studied in detail in laryngeal cancer so far. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of methylation of WNT pathway negative regulators in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and evaluate its prognostic significance.Methods Twenty-six laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and samples obtained from twenty-eight primary laryngeal carcinoma patients were analyzed. The methylation status of DKK1, LKB1, PPP2R2B, RUNX3, SFRP1, SFRP2, and WIF-1 was assessed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.ResultsFrequent hypermethylation of DKK1, PPP2R2B, SFRP1, SFRP2, and WIF-1 was detected, and a high methylation index was usually observed. Half of the cell lines analyzed and seventy percent of primary laryngeal carcinoma cases were characterized by the methylation of at least four genes. The hypermethylation of PPP2R2B or WIF-1 was associated with longer survival in laryngeal carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, the concurrent methylation of PPP2R2B and SFRP1 differentiated primary from recurrent laryngeal carcinoma cell lines.Conclusions Frequent hypermethylation of WNT pathway negative regulators is observed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The possible prognostic significance of the methylation of DKK1, PPP2R2B, and SFRP1 needs to be evaluated in further prospective studies.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 04/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer is a collective term that describes malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx characterized by high incidence and mortality rates. Although most HNSCC originate from the mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract, where they can be easily detected during a routine clinical examination. Often the definitive diagnosis is delayed because of the difficulty in differentiating from other similar lesions. Activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are the major molecular alterations involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, epigenetic changes can alter the expression of critical genes important in the development of a variety of cancers. The detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation as a tool for the detection of tumors or its use as prognostic marker have been described for many different cancers including HNSCC. The search for biomarkers has as its main aim the evaluation and measurement of the status of normal and pathological biological processes as well as pharmacological responses to certain treatments. The tracking of these biomarkers is an important part for the identification of individuals in the early stages of head and neck cancer for its diagnostic and prognostic relevance reflecting in high survival rates, better quality of life and less cost to the healthcare system. Therefore, assuming that cancer results from genetic and epigenetic changes, analyzes based on gene methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting the behavior of these head and neck tumors.Oral Oncology 06/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor