Cluster analysis and food group consumption in a national sample of Australian girls.
ABSTRACT Food preferences develop early in life and track into later life. There is limited information on food consumption and dietary patterns in Australian girls. The present study aimed to: (i) determine the frequency of food groups consumed over 1day; (ii) identify dietary clusters based on food group consumption; and (iii) compare dietary intakes and activity variables between clusters.
A cross-sectional analysis of 9-16-year-old girls (n=1114) from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was performed.
Over the whole day, 30% of all girls consumed carbonated sugar drinks, 46% consumed take-away food, 56% consumed fruit, 70% consumed at least one vegetable, and 19% and 30% consumed white and/or red meat, respectively. K-means cluster analysis derived four clusters. Approximately one-third of girls were identified in a Meat and vegetable cluster; these girls had the highest intakes of red meat and vegetables, and tended to have higher intakes of fruit, whole grain breads, low fat yoghurt, and lower intakes of take-away foods and soft drinks. They also had the highest intakes of protein, fibre and micronutrients; and tended to perform more physical activity, compared to girls in the remaining clusters.
Girls identified in the Meat and vegetable cluster, on average, consumed more lean red meat, vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, and had a higher intakes of many nutrients. The high percentage of girls not identified in this cluster suggests the need to inform them on how to make healthy, nutrient dense food choices, and why they require increased nutrient intakes at this time.
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ABSTRACT: To explore mean food group intakes associated with central obesity anthropometry among children and adolescents enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Cross-sectional study. Representative sampling of the US population (1998-2002). Subjects were 3761 children (5-11 years) and 1803 adolescents (12-16 years) with single 24 h dietary recalls and anthropometric measures of central body fat (waist circumference and sum of subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses). Results were controlled for confounding by age, height, race/ethnicity, Tanner stage, television viewing and parental education. In younger children, there was no relationship between central adiposity and mean intakes of dairy, fruit, vegetables or grains, while a positive association with meat intake was found among boys. In adolescent boys and girls, central body fat measures were inversely associated with mean dairy and grain intakes. Adolescent boys in the highest quartile of central adiposity consumed less fruit and fewer vegetables; those in the lowest central adiposity quartile consumed less meat. Finally, adolescents who met the criteria for central obesity (waist circumference >or=85th percentile for age and sex) reported consuming significantly less total dairy (as well as milk and cheese separately), total grains (whole and refined) and total fruit and vegetables. There was no association with meat consumption. To test the stability of these findings, the final analysis was replicated in 2541 same-aged adolescents from NHANES 1999-2002; the results were very similar. These cross-sectional analyses suggest that intakes of dairy, grains and total fruits and vegetables are inversely associated with central obesity among adolescents.Public Health Nutrition 09/2009; 13(6):797-805. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two factors have been shown to contribute to rejection or acceptance of fruits and vegetables: food neophobia and 'picky/fussy' eating. Food neophobia is generally regarded as the reluctance to eat, or the avoidance of, new foods. In contrast, 'picky/fussy' eaters are usually defined as children who consume an inadequate variety of foods through rejection of a substantial amount of foods that are familiar (as well as unfamiliar) to them. Through understanding the variables which influence the development or expression of these factors (including age, personality, gender, social influences and willingness to try foods) we can further understand the similarities and differences between the two. Due to the inter-relationship between 'picky/fussy' eating and food neophobia, some factors, such as pressure to eat, personality factors, parental practices or feeding styles and social influences, will have similar effects on both magnitude and duration of expression of these behaviours. On the other hand, these constructs may be differentially affected by factors such as age, tactile defensiveness, environment and culture. The effects of these variables are discussed within this review. Behavioural interventions, focusing on early life exposure, could be developed to attenuate food neophobia and 'picky/fussy' eating in children, so promoting the ready acceptance and independent choice of fruits and vegetables.Appetite 01/2008; 50(2-3):181-93. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years of age. Body mass index (weight/height(2)). For each of the surveys, centile curves were drawn that at age 18 years passed through the widely used cut off points of 25 and 30 kg/m(2) for adult overweight and obesity. The resulting curves were averaged to provide age and sex specific cut off points from 2-18 years. The proposed cut off points, which are less arbitrary and more internationally based than current alternatives, should help to provide internationally comparable prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in children.BMJ Clinical Research 06/2000; 320(7244):1240-3. · 14.09 Impact Factor